Card Set Information
genetics development brain genome genotype phenotype chromosome deoxibronucleic acid
a complete set of chromosomes
the genetic composition of an organism
the observable appearance of an organism
the strand of DNA found within a nucleus of a cell
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Molecules that compose chromosomes
a functional hereditary unit made up of dna that occupies a fixed location on a chromosone
the translation of the genotype into the phenotype of an organism
alternative version of a particular gene
having two identical alleles for a given gene
having t wo different alleles for a given gene
gene that will reproduceits characteristic phenotype only when it occurs in a homozygous pair
a gene that produces its phenotype regardless of wether its paired allele is heterozygous or homozygous
a gene of which only the mothers or the fathers copy is expressed but not both in the normal mendelian sense
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
a molecule that is similar to DNA that participates in the translation of genetic sequences into proteins.
a sequence of three bases on the DNA molecule that encode one of 20 amino acids
the set of proteins encoded by the genome
cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that reduces the number of chromosomes in half in the reproductive cells such as sperm eggs and spores.
the characteristic of genes located adjacent to one another to be passed along as a group
a proccess occuring during meiosis in which chromosomes exchange equivalent segments of DNA material
a heritable alteration of genes
sex linked characteristics
phenotypical characteristics that result from expression of genes on the x chromosome that are not duplicated on the y-chromosome.
x chromosome inactivation
the pprocess by which one X chromosome in each female cell is silenced to equalize the amount of proteins procuced by males and femalse
single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
variation that occurs in a gene when a single based is changed from one version to the next
a degenative, ultimately fatal condition marked initially by memory loss.
the cell formed by the two merged reproductive cells
an organism in its early stage of development; in humans, the developing individual is reffered to as an embryo between two and eight weeks following conception
the unborn offspring; used to refer in humas to the developing individual following the embryonic stage until birth
one of the first three layers (endoderm, mesodem and ectoderm) that differintiate in the developing embryo
one of the initial three germ layers of the embryo the source of the skin and neural tissue
one of the initial three germ layers the embryo that will form connective tissue such as ligaments, muscles, blood vessels, and the urogenital systems
one of the initial three germ layers of the embryo that source of many internal organs
a layer formed by the differentiating neural cells within the embryonic ectoderm
a chemical that produces celll differentiation
a structure formed by the developing embryonic neural plate that will eventually form the brain and spinal cord, with the interior of the tube forming the ventricle system of the adult brain.
the layer of cells within the lining of the neural tube that give rise to the new neural cells
a stem cell in the ventricular layer that gives rise to either additional progenitor cells or migrating neural cells
the process of a cell division that produces two identical daughter cells
special glia that radiate from the ventricular layer to the outer edge of the cerebral cortex, serving as a pathway for migrating neurons.
an embryonic mesodermic structure lying under the neural tube that will eventually develop into the spinal vertebrae
the swelling at the tip of a growing azon or dendrite that helps the branch reach its synaptic target
long, fingerlike extensions from growth cones of axons and dendrites
flat, sheetlike extensions from the core of growth cones located between the filopodia
the process by which azonos growing in the same direction stick together
cell adhesion molecule (CAM)
a molecule on the surface of a grwoing azon that promotes fasciculation
programmed cell death
nerve growth factor
the first identified neurotophin
substance released by target cells that contributes to the survival of presynaptic neurons
cell death gene
a gene responsible for triggering the activity of capases leading to apoptosis
an enxyme within a cell that cuts up DNA and produces cell death
the process in which functional synapses are maintained and nonfucntional synapses are lost
the ability to change
a segment of time during development in which a particular experience is influential and after which experience has little or no effect
a synapse strenghtened by simultaneous activity. Named after Donald hebb
the process by which baby animals, particularly birds, learn to follow their mother immediately upon seeing her after birth or hatching.
a neural tube in which the rostral neural tube does not develop normally, resulting in incomplete formation of the brain and skul.
a neural tube defect in which the caudal part of the tube does not close properly
an abnormal genetic condtiion resulting from a genotype with three copies of chromosome 21 responsiible for moderate mental retardation and a characteristic physical appearance
fragile x syndrome
a heritable genetic disorder that produces cognitive and physical abnormalities
a heritable condition in which the individual does not produce enzymes necessary for the breakdown of phenylalanine; left untreated the condition producess mental retarrdation
fetal alcohol syndrome
a set of physical and cognitive characteristics that result from maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy
the deterioration of the axon segment separated from the cell body by the damage to the axon
the deterioration of postsynaptic cells in response to loss of input from damaged presynaptic neurons.
a substance that normally prevents further sprouting by mature axons
deterioration of cognitive abilities resulting from brain disorders.
the birth of new neural cells
an abnormal internal structure of neurons found in cases of alzheimers disease
an intracellular protein responsible for maintaining the structure of microtubules; broken down in conditions such as alzheimers disease
a protein structure associated with the degeneration of tissue, such as in patients with alzheimers and other types of dimentia.