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Flows in one direction
stored energy Car at top of hill
energy in motion Car rolling downhill
Laws of thermodynamics
- First Law
- Total amount of energy in the universe is constant. Energy can change form and be transferred.
- Second Law
- Energy changes from a more useful to a less useful form. It becomes increasingly more random.
A chemical reaction where energy is released as a byproduct of the reaction.
AB ---------} A + B + energy
Exergonic reactions release energy!
Chemical reactions that require an input of energy to make the reaction go.
A + B + energy -------------} AB
Endergonic reactions need energy!
ATP and reactions
- The energy released from an exergonic reaction is used to run an endergonic reaction.
- Exergonic reaction
- ATP --------} ADP + P + energy
- Endergonic reaction
- ADP + P + energy--------} ATP
- A series of chemical reactions making up a pathway.
- The pathway may be linear, cyclic or a combination.
Reactants are located on the flat end of the arrow and products on the pointy end!!
- - Most metabolic reactions have a small energy difference-
- - This means that most are reversible.
- - Direction of reaction depends on concentrations of reactants and products.