Biology 101 ch 2

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karrinschultz
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172214
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Biology 101 ch 2
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2012-09-20 23:23:21
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Biology 101 chapter two CLEP
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Chapter two
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  1. Matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass - composed of chemical elements
  2. Element
    A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary cemical means.
  3. How many elements are recognized and found in nature
    92
  4. 96% of the total amount of essenial chemical to life
    Oxygen Carbon Hydrogen and Nitrogen
  5. Most of the remaining 4% of chemicals essential to life are:
    • Calcium
    • Phosphorus
    • potassiuiim
    • sulfur
    • sodium
    • cholorine
    • magnesium
  6. Trace elements (minute (less than .01%) quantities required for life)
    • Boron
    • Chromium
    • cobalt
    • copper
    • fluorine
    • iodine
    • iron
    • Manganese
    • molybdenum
    • selenium
    • silicon
    • tinvanadium 
    • zinc
  7. Compound
    substance consisting of two or more different elements combined ina fixed ratio
  8. Sugar is formed by what chemicals
    Carbon hydrogen and oxygen
  9. what is the chemical compostition of table salt
    sodium chloride, NaCl
  10. Atom 
    smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.
  11. proton
    • subatomic particle wiith a single positive Electrical charge 
    • +
  12. Electron
    • subatomic particle with a single Negatice electrical charge 
    • -
  13. Neutron 
    electrically neutral particle ( no charge )
  14. What particles are found in the nucleus
    neutrons and protons
  15. Atomic number
    The number of protons in each atom of a particular element.
  16. Unless otherwise indicated, an atom has an equal number of protons and ___ and thus its net electrical charge is zero
    Protons
  17. Mass number
    sum of the protons and neutrons in its nucleus
  18. Mass of a proton and the mass of a neutron are almost identical and are expressed in a unit of measurement called ___
    dalton
  19. Electron has ____ the mass of a proton
    1/2000
  20. atomic mass
    The approximate total mass of an atom;also called  atomic weight. Given as a whole number, the atomic mass approximately equals the mass number. 
  21. Isotopes
    same numbers of protons and electrons and behave identically in chemical reactions but they have different numbers of neuutrons.
  22. Radioactive isotope
    one isoptope in which the nucleus decays spontaneously, giving off particles and energy.
  23. Electron shells
    • An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom. 
    • Electrons occur only at certain energy levels
  24. Chemical bonds
    An attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells.
  25. Ion
    atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from a gain or loss of one or more electrons
  26. ionic bond
    Two ions with opposite charges attract each other; the attraction holds them togeather
  27. Salt synonym 
    exsist as __ in nature
    • ionic comound. 
    • crystals
  28. covalent bond
    two atoms share one or more pairs of outer-shell electrons
  29. Two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond for a __
    molecule
  30. Double bond
    atoms share two pairs of electrons
  31. Electronegativity
    Attraction of a given ato for the electrons of a covalent bond
  32. the more electronegative an atom, the more ___ it pulls shared electrons toward its nucleus
    strongly
  33. Nonpolar covalent bonds
    both atoms exert an equal pull on the electrons - electrons are shared equally between the atoms
  34. polar covalent bond
    unequal sharing of electrons
  35. in a polar covalent bond, one atom of the molecule is___ and another is __
    positive/ negative
  36. Hydrogen bond
    charged regions on each water molecule are electrically attracted to oppositely charged regions on neighboring molecules. because the positively charged region in this special type of bond is always a hydrogen atom its called a Hydrogen bond
  37. Cohesion
    tendency of molecules to stick together (stronger for water thanmost liquids)
  38. Adhesion
    clinging of one substance to another
  39. adhesion of water to the cell walss of a plant's thinveins also helps 
    counter the downward pull of gravity
  40. sURFACE TENSION
    Measuere of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. 
  41. heat
    Amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in a body of matter
  42. Temperature
    measures the intensity of heat - AVERAGE speed of molecules rather than the TOTAL amount of heat energy in a body of matter
  43. Heat is ___ in order to break hydrogen bonds
    Absorbed
  44. Heat is ___ whenhydrogen bonds form
    released
  45. whenwater is cooled, there are more hydrogen bonds forming, ___  heat and slowing the cooling process. 
    releasing
  46. Large bodies of water can store a Large amount of heart from the sun during warm periods. In cooler times, the water gives off heat ( keeping coastal areas in a more stable climate ) Water's ____ also stabilizes ocean temperatures.
    resistance to temperature
  47. Solution
    liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of wo or more substances
  48. Solvent
    dissolving agent (usually water)
  49. Solute
    substance that is dissolved ( sugar, salt milk etc.)
  50. Aqueous solution
    a solution where water is the solvent
  51. In regard to pH levels; chemical compounds that recieve a OH- creates a ___ and then has more (OH- or H+)
    Base; OH-
  52. In regard to pH levels; chemical compounds that donates a OH- creates a ___ and then has more (OH- or H+)
    acid; H+
  53. pH scale stands for
    Potential of Hydrogen
  54. On the pH scale; a 1 would be the most __ 
    acidic
  55. On the pH scale; a 14 would be the most
    basic
  56. Each pH unit represents a #fold exchange in the concentration of H+ in a solution
    # ten; tenfold exchange between numbers
  57. Buffers
    biological fluids that minimize changes in pH by accepting or releaseing H+ as needed
  58. Acid Precipitation
    refers to rain, snow, or fog with a pH lower than 5.6
  59. 30% of CO2 is taken in by the oceans. an ___ of CO2 absorption is expected to change ocean chemistry and harm marine life an ecosystems
    increase
  60. CO2 is being absobed due to ___ pH of seawater. which then ___ the concentrationof carbonate ions which are used by coral to protect themselves and by default protect fish and sea creatures. a depleation of coral means less fish and less reprodution.
    lower, decrease
  61. Chemical Reaction
     making and breaking of chemical bonds, leading to changes into the compositon of matter.
  62. Reactants
    starting materials
  63. Product
    result of a chemical reaction
  64. SAME number of atoms must be present of both sides of a chemical reaction equation
    No matter can be created nor destroyed.

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