Biology 101 ch 3

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Biology 101 ch 3
2012-09-20 23:34:33
chp biology 101 three

Chapter three
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  1. Organic Compounds.
    Carbon-based molecules
  2. Hydrocarbons
    methane and other compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen
  3. Carbon skeleton
    chain of carobon atoms in a n organic molecule
  4. Carbon Skeletons can be ___
    Branched or Unbranched
  5. Isomer
    compounds with the same formula but different structures
  6. A general characteristic of all hydrocarbons is that they are __ molecules due to their ___ c-h bonds
    Nonpolar x2
  7. Functional Groups
    • Hydroxyl group -OH
    • Carbonyl Group >c=o
    • Carboxyl group -COOH
    • Amino group -NH2
    • phosphate group -opo3^2
  8. hydrophilic
    Water-loving and therefore soluble in water
  9. hydroxyl group
    • consists of a hydrogen atom  bonded to an oxygen atom which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton 
    • C-(OH)
  10. Carbonyl group
    a carbon atom is linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom
  11. If the carbonof the carbonyl group is at the end of a carbon skeleton, the compound is called
  12. if the carbon of the carbonyl group is within the chain , the ompound is called a 
  13. Carboxyl group
    consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and also bonded to a hydroxyl group
  14. The carboxyl group acts as an __ by contributing an H+ to a solution and becoming ionized.
  15. Compounds with carboxyl groups are called
    carboxylic acids
  16. amino group
    is composed of a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeleton
  17. Amino acid acts as a ___ by picking up an H+ from a solution
  18. Amines
    Organic compounds with an amino group
  19. Phosphate group
    consists of a phophorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
  20. Phosphate groups are usually __ and by being...
    Ionized by attaching to the carbon skeleton by one of its oxygen atoms
  21. methyl groug
    consists of a carbon bonded to three hydrogens
  22. compounds with methyl groups are called...
    methylated compounds
  23. Methylated compounds
    compounds with methyl groups
  24. macromolecules
    Biological molecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
  25. Polymers
    • joining smaller molecules into chains 
    • A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks strung together
  27. A cell makes all of its diverse macromolecules from a small list of ingredients of... how many components
  28. Dehydration reaction
    a reaction that removes a molecule of water
  29. hydrolysis
    hydrolysis means to break with water and cells break bonds betweenmonomers by adding water to them. 
  30. Enzyes
    specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
  31. Carbohydrates
    Member of the class of biolgical molecules consistin of simple single-monomer sugars (monsaccharides) two monomer sugars (disaccharides) and other multiunit sugars (poysaccharides)
  32. Monosaccharides
    The simplest carbohydrate, a simple sugar with a molecular formular that is generally some multipe of CH2O. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
  33. disaccharide
    A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction. 
  34. Polysacchardies
    Polymers of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration reactions
  35. Starch
    storage polysaccharide in plants - consists entirely of flucose monomers. 
  36. Glycogen
    (highly branched than starch)
  37. Most of our flycogen is stored where?
    as ganules in our liver and muscle  cells, which hydrolyze the glycogen to relase glucose when it is needed. 
  38. Cellulose
    • the most abundant organic compund of earth.
    • Also a polymer of flucose, but its glucose monomers are linked together ina different orientation.
    • A large plysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into cable-like fibrils that provide structural support inplant cell walls. 
  39. Chitin
    A structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of arthropods. 
  40. Lipids
    An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar convalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic. Lipids include fats, phospholipids, and steroids and are insoluble in water (hydrophobic)
  41. Hydrophobic
    Water-fearing ( lipids are hydrophobic)
  42. Oils are a liquid __
  43. Fat
    large lipid made from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids
  44. A synonym for fat
  45. Unsaturated 
    having less than the maximum number of hydrogens
  46. Saturated
    fats with the maximum number of hydrogens 
  47. Phospholipids
    A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving th emolecule a nonpolar hydrophobic tail and a polar hydrophilic head.  Phospholipids form bilayers that functionas biological membranes. 
  48. Steroids
    lipids whose carbon skeleton contains four fused rings
  49. Cholesterol
    A steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids such as hormones. 
  50. Protein
    • polymer constructd from amino acid monomers
    • A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure.
  51. Amino Acids
    Have an amino group and a carboxyl group (which makes it an acid, hence the name amino acid)
  52. peptide bond.
    The covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by a dehydration reaction. 
  53. Dipeptide
    made from two amino acids
  54. Polypeptide
    A plymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. 
  55. To release amino acids from the polypeptide by hydrolysis, a molecule of H2O must be added back to each peptide bond.
    yeah that.
  56. Denaturation
    Polypeptide chains unravel losing their specific shape and as a result , their function
  57. Primary Structure of a protein
    Unique sequence of amino acids
  58. Secondary Structure of a protein
    parts of the polypeptide coil or fold into local patterns. Once shape is ALPHA HELIX a kind of spirl. Another shape is a PLEATED SHEET. 
  59. Tertiary structure
    • the overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide.
    • Tertiary structure generally results from interactions among the R groups of the amino acids making up the polypeptide. 
  60. Quaternary structure
    The fourth level of protein structure;the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits. 
  61. Gene
    A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequencce in DNA or RNA in some viruses. most of the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA; a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
  62. DNA stands for
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  63. Nucleic acids
    A plymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as  a blueprint for proteins and through the actions of proteins, for a lll cellular structures and activites. the two types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA
  64. RNA stands for
    ribonucleic acid 
  65. DNA
    A double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) Cytosine (C) guanine (G) and thymine(T) Capable of replicating, is an organism's genetic material. 
  66. RNA
    A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a robse sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) cytosine (C) guanine (G) and uracil (U) usually single-stranded;functions in protein synthesiss and as the genome of some biruses. 
  67. Nucleotides
    An Organic monomer consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
  68. Double helix
    two polynucleotides wrap around each other
  69. Mutations in DNA have led to __ in several human groups whose ancestors raised dairy cattle
    lactose tolerance
  70. Carbohydrates Functions
    • Energy for cell, raw material ( Glucose)
    • Energy storage ( Stach, glycogen)
    • plant cell support ( cellulose)
  71. Lipids Functions
    • Energy storage (fats)
    • Cell membrain (phospholipids)
    • Hormones ( sterods)
  72. Proteins Functions
    • Enzyme (lactase)
    • Structure protein ( hair tendons)
    • Movement (muscles)
    • transport ( hemoglobin)
    • Commmunication (signal proteins)
    • Defense ( Antibodies)
    • Storage (egg albumin)
    • Receive signals (recptor protein)
  73. Nucleic Acids Fuctions
    • Heredity (DNA or RNA)
    • Code for proteins (DNA or RNA
  74. A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture....
  75. Lipids differ from other macromolecules in that they
    Are not truly polymers