methane and other compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen
chain of carobon atoms in a n organic molecule
Carbon Skeletons can be ___
Branched or Unbranched
compounds with the same formula but different structures
A general characteristic of all hydrocarbons is that they are __ molecules due to their ___ c-h bonds
Hydroxyl group -OH
Carbonyl Group >c=o
Carboxyl group -COOH
Amino group -NH2
phosphate group -opo3^2
Water-loving and therefore soluble in water
consists of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton
a carbon atom is linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom
If the carbonof the carbonyl group is at the end of a carbon skeleton, the compound is called
if the carbon of the carbonyl group is within the chain , the ompound is called a
consists of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and also bonded to a hydroxyl group
The carboxyl group acts as an __ by contributing an H+ to a solution and becoming ionized.
Compounds with carboxyl groups are called
is composed of a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeleton
Amino acid acts as a ___ by picking up an H+ from a solution
Organic compounds with an amino group
consists of a phophorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
Phosphate groups are usually __ and by being...
Ionized by attaching to the carbon skeleton by one of its oxygen atoms
consists of a carbon bonded to three hydrogens
compounds with methyl groups are called...
compounds with methyl groups
Biological molecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
joining smaller molecules into chains
A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many identical or similar building blocks strung together
THE BUILDING BLOCKES OF POLYMERS
A cell makes all of its diverse macromolecules from a small list of ingredients of... how many components
a reaction that removes a molecule of water
hydrolysis means to break with water and cells break bonds betweenmonomers by adding water to them.
specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
Member of the class of biolgical molecules consistin of simple single-monomer sugars (monsaccharides) two monomer sugars (disaccharides) and other multiunit sugars (poysaccharides)
The simplest carbohydrate, a simple sugar with a molecular formular that is generally some multipe of CH2O. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides and polysaccharides.
A sugar molecule consisting of two monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction.
Polymers of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration reactions
storage polysaccharide in plants - consists entirely of flucose monomers.
(highly branched than starch)
Most of our flycogen is stored where?
as ganules in our liver and muscle cells, which hydrolyze the glycogen to relase glucose when it is needed.
the most abundant organic compund of earth.
Also a polymer of flucose, but its glucose monomers are linked together ina different orientation.
A large plysaccharide composed of many glucose monomers linked into cable-like fibrils that provide structural support inplant cell walls.
A structural polysaccharide found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of arthropods.
An organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar convalent bonds, making the compound mostly hydrophobic. Lipids include fats, phospholipids, and steroids and are insoluble in water (hydrophobic)
Water-fearing ( lipids are hydrophobic)
Oils are a liquid __
large lipid made from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids
A synonym for fat
having less than the maximum number of hydrogens
fats with the maximum number of hydrogens
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving th emolecule a nonpolar hydrophobic tail and a polar hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that functionas biological membranes.
lipids whose carbon skeleton contains four fused rings
A steroid that is an important component of animal cell membranes and that acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other steroids such as hormones.
polymer constructd from amino acid monomers
A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure.
Have an amino group and a carboxyl group (which makes it an acid, hence the name amino acid)
The covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by a dehydration reaction.
made from two amino acids
A plymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds.
To release amino acids from the polypeptide by hydrolysis, a molecule of H2O must be added back to each peptide bond.
Polypeptide chains unravel losing their specific shape and as a result , their function
Primary Structure of a protein
Unique sequence of amino acids
Secondary Structure of a protein
parts of the polypeptide coil or fold into local patterns. Once shape is ALPHA HELIX a kind of spirl. Another shape is a PLEATED SHEET.
the overall three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide.
Tertiary structure generally results from interactions among the R groups of the amino acids making up the polypeptide.
The fourth level of protein structure;the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequencce in DNA or RNA in some viruses. most of the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA; a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
DNA stands for
A plymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and through the actions of proteins, for a lll cellular structures and activites. the two types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA
RNA stands for
A double-stranded helical nucleic acid molecule consisting of nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) Cytosine (C) guanine (G) and thymine(T) Capable of replicating, is an organism's genetic material.
A type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a robse sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A) cytosine (C) guanine (G) and uracil (U) usually single-stranded;functions in protein synthesiss and as the genome of some biruses.
An Organic monomer consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group. nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
two polynucleotides wrap around each other
Mutations in DNA have led to __ in several human groups whose ancestors raised dairy cattle
Energy for cell, raw material ( Glucose)
Energy storage ( Stach, glycogen)
plant cell support ( cellulose)
Energy storage (fats)
Cell membrain (phospholipids)
Hormones ( sterods)
Structure protein ( hair tendons)
transport ( hemoglobin)
Commmunication (signal proteins)
Defense ( Antibodies)
Storage (egg albumin)
Receive signals (recptor protein)
Nucleic Acids Fuctions
Heredity (DNA or RNA)
Code for proteins (DNA or RNA
A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture....
Lipids differ from other macromolecules in that they