CDO 338 3.1

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CDO 338 3.1
2012-09-20 19:40:40
phonological system development

phonological system and development
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  1. phonological acquisition theories
    • behaviorist
    • structuralist
    • generative phonology
    • natural phonology
    • nonlinear phonology
    • optimality
  2. behaviorist theory
    • necessiatates the occurence of imitating, practicing, experiencing, conditioning, and reinforcing behavior
    • child has a need to communicate, with the child attending to and identifying with the caregiver
    • child's vocalizations become positively reinforcing to the child because of their similarities to the caregivers
  3. Structuralist theory
    • stresses the universals that exist in the acquisition and systems of all langauges
    • contend that an invariant and innate order of stages exist
    • sequence of stages is based on sound constrasts
    • contend that babbling and meaningful speech are distinct and independent
  4. generative phonology theory
    • there is an explicit set of distinctive features rom which phonemes are generated
    • deep structures of a language affect the suface structures
    • phonological development is rule ordered
    • marked and unmarked sounds
  5. marked sounds
    sounds acquired later and occur less frequently in different languages
  6. unmarked
    acquired earlier and occur in more languages of the world
  7. generative phonology theory thought
    • we are born with an awesome language ability that unfolds over time.
    • there is a definite order of learning these things
  8. natural phonology theory
    • children develop their sound system by modifying their innate or natural system of phonological processes as a response to listenin to speakers of their language
    • children change their innate forms to match the adult forms
  9. nonlinear honology theory
    • draws from the following theories: prosodic, autosegmental, metrical, and underspecification
    • development of speech sounds are segments composed of features are organized hierarchically rather than bundles of features
  10. apraxia theory
    works on timing, stress, loudness, and prosody
  11. optimality theory
    • most contemporary group of theories
    • aligned with connectionist theory which was put forward by cognitive psychology
    • input and output representations exist
    • the optimal pronounication of a word violates the very least important constraint
    • we have certain cognitive abilities in order to acquire language
  12. sensory modalities for learning
    organized at various levels: sensation, discrimination, recognition
  13. perceptual development
    • before birth - auditory experiences began
    •   loudness between 24-28 weeks in utero
    •   syllable differentiation - last trimester
    • after birth -- within days
    •   illustrate preference for mother's voice
    •   illustrat preference for native sounding speech
  14. input
    every child is born with the ability to produce all of the sounds present in all of the world's languages. in the early stages of language acquisition children from different cultures and language environments all produce the same vocalizations
  15. assuming that biological and psychological development are continuous...
    phonological deelopment is also a continuous process that begins long before a child's first words
  16. phono development
    • stages leading to adult phonological system
    • prelinguistic : stage 1
    • linguistic: stages 2-6
  17. phono development stage one
    • preliguistic
    • 1 phonation
    • 2 cooing
    • 3 expansion
    • 4 reduplicated babbling
    • 5 variegated babbling
  18. phono development stages 2-6
    • 2 first words
    • 3 phonemic development
    • 4 stabilization of phonological system
    • 5 morphophonemic development
    • 6 spelling