GI 2nd half.txt

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GI 2nd half.txt
2012-09-20 20:05:19

week 1 of the GI tract
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  1. What is hiatal hernia?
    An anatomical abnormaility where part of the stomach protrudes through the diaphram into the chest
  2. What are causes of Hiatal herina
    • congenital Defect
    • increased intraabdominal pressure associated with obesity
  3. What are symptoms of Hiatal hernia
    Present in only a minority affected
  4. Hiatal Hernia - Diagnosis
    • chest x-ray
    • Barium swallow radiograph
    • Endoscopy
  5. Hiatial Hernia - Treatment
    • lifestyle changes
    • medications
    • surgery
  6. What are dieases of the stomach
    • Gastritis
    • Peptic ulcers
    • Gastroenteritis and food poisioning
    • cancer of the stomach
  7. Gastritis
    an inflamation, irritation and swelling of the lining of the stomach
  8. 2 types of gastritis
    • Acute gastritis - short lasting
    • Chronic Atrophic gastritis - last for months to years
  9. Causes of Acute Gastritis
    • Alchohol
    • tobacco/smoking
    • Helicobacter pylori infection
    • NSAIDs
  10. Symptoms of Acute Gastritis
    • Dark stools
    • vomity blood or coffee-ground like material
  11. What test can you run for acute gastritis
  12. What is chronic atrophic gastritis
    Dergenaerative condition affecting the stomach lining interfering with gastric intrinis factor and HCL secretion
  13. Causes of chronic atrophic gastritis
    • stomach cancer
    • chronic alcholism
    • chronic exposure to irritants such as alchohol, aspirin or certain food
  14. Symptoms and tests for chronic atrophic gastritis
    • similar to acture gastritis
    • Dark stools
    • vomity blood or coffee-ground like material
    • Esophageogastroduodenoscopy
  15. Treatment for chronic atrophic gastritis
    little can be done
  16. Peptic Ulcers
    an erosion in the mucous membrane that produces a crate-like lesion can occuranywhere in the digestive tract
  17. What are 2 types of peptic ulcers
    • Gastric ulcer = found in the lowe half of the stomach
    • duodenal ulcer - found in the uper part of th esmall intestine directly below the stomach
  18. Causes of peptic ulcers
    • helicobacter pylori infection
    • NSAIDs
    • Tobacco/smoking
    • alcohol
  19. What are symptoms of peoptic ulcers
    • Bloody (dark, tarry) stools (melana)
    • Bloody vomitus (hematemesis)
  20. Possible complications Peptic ulcers
    • Perforation of gastric or intestinal wall
    • internal bleeding
    • gastric outlet obstruction
    • blookd in stoool or in vomiting
    • peritonitis
  21. Diagnosis of Peptic ulcers
    • Esophgeogastroduodenenoscopy
    • Detection of blood in the stool
    • Blood tests for elevated wbcsw
  22. Treatment of Peptic Ulcers - helicobacter pylori infection
    • antibotics
    • proton pump inhibitors
    • bismuth
  23. Treatment of Peptic ulcers - NSAID induced lesion
    • Proton pump inhibitor
    • PGE1 analogue
    • adsorbent
  24. Gastroentreritis and food poisoning
    Inflamation of the stomach and small and large intestines
  25. Causes of Gastroentreritis and food poisoning
    • infection microoganinism
    • chemical toxings
    • lactose intolerance
    • food allergies
  26. Symptoms of Gastroentreritis and food poisoning
    nausea, vomiting and/or diarrhea
  27. Treatment for Gastroentreritis and food poisoning
    • Fluid and nutritional replacemnts
    • Antipasmodic medications
  28. Cancer of the stomach
    • the most common form is adenocarcinoma which starts in the mucosal lining of the stomach
    • diagnosis is often delayed
  29. What are early stages of cancer of stomach
    • bloatign
    • gas
    • heartburn
    • sense of ullness
  30. What are risks factor for stomach cancer
    • family history of gastric cancer
    • helicbacter pylori infection
    • Blood type A
    • Smoking
    • History of pernicious anemia
    • Ademoatous gastric polyp larger than 2 cm
  31. Symptoms of Stomach Cancer
    • Dark stools
    • Vomiting of blood
    • Difficulty in swallowing that increaes over time
  32. Diagnosis of stomach cancer
    • complete blood cound CBC to check for anemia
    • esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy
    • stoll test to check for blood int ehstoools
    • upper GI series
  33. What are treatments for Stomach cancer
  34. What are diseases of the intestines
    • Appendicitis
    • Malabsorption syndrome
    • Celiac disease
    • Diverticulitis
    • Reguibak ebterutus (Chrohn;s disease)
    • Chronic ulcerative colitis
  35. What is appendicitis
    Acute and painful inflamaiton of the appendix, a small pouch at teh begining of the large intesting
  36. What is a possible function of the appendix
    • although primarily unknown; but may store helpful bacteria to "reboot" digestive system
    • -possible immune funciton due to presence of lymphiod tissue
    • possible endocrine funciton since shown to able to produce biogenic amines and peptide hormone
  37. What are cause of appendicitis
    • due to blockage by fecial matter
    • foreign object
    • tumor
  38. How is appendicitis diagnosed?
    • Pain following palpation of lower right quadrant
    • wbc count
    • abnormal CT scan or ultrasound
    • diagnostic laparoscopy
  39. What are treatments for appendicitis
    surgery or antibotics
  40. What are complications of appendicitis
    • gangren
    • peritonitis
  41. What is malabsorption syndrome?
    An alteration in the ability ot absorb fat or other nutrients from the small intestines
  42. Possible causes of malabsorptions inclue
    • abnormality of the gut wall
    • failure to produce pancreatic lipase due to pancreatic disese or blocked pancreatic duct
    • inadequate bile secretion due to liver disease or blocked bile duct
    • abnormalities of the flora of the gut
  43. What are symptoms of Malabsorptions syndrome
    • Diarrhea or steatorrhea (excessive fat causing greasy, foul-smelling stools that float)
    • abdominal distention
    • anemia
    • edema
    • malnutrition
    • muscle cramping form low vitamin D Ca2+ and K+ levels
    • muscle wasting and atrophy due to decrease protein absorption and metabolism
    • Perianal skin burning itching or soreness from frequent loose stools
  44. What are treatments for Malabsorption syndrome
    • Well-control diet
    • fat-soluble vitamn (A, D, E, K) suplements
  45. What is celiac disease
    • an heritied, autoimmune disease in which the villi of the small intestine are damaged from eating gluten
    • villi become flattend affecting their ability to absorb other nutrients
  46. Treatment for celiac disease
    is to elminate gluten from diet
  47. What is diverticulitis
    inflamation fo diverticula (small bulging prouches) in the sigmoid colon; presences ofpouches in the coclon is called diverticulosis
  48. What are symptoms/diagnosis/treatment of diverticulitis
    • Symptoms - peritonitis
    • Diagnosis - Barioum enema
    • Treatment - antiboitics
  49. What is Region enteritis (Chron's disease)
    • A form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually affects the intestines, but may offuce anywhere from the mouth to the anus
    • intestinal walls thicken andbecome rigid and intestinal lumen narrows and becomes obstructed
    • period of exacerbation, remission and relapse are common
    • risk for hemoarrhage and perforation
  50. What are risk factors of chron's disease Regional entereitis
    • Family history
    • jewish ancestry
    • smoking
  51. Possibel causes
    • immune disorders
    • allergies
    • stress
  52. What are symptoms (similar to appendicitis)
    • Lower right quaderant pain
    • Pain with passing stools (tenesmus)
    • Melena (dark, bloody stools)
  53. Five types of chrohn's diseases
    • Ileocolitis
    • Ileitis
    • gastroduodenal crohn's disease
    • Jejunoileitis
    • crohn's (granulomatous) colitis
  54. Ileocolitis
    Most common form of chron's disease affecting small ileum and large (colon) intestines
  55. Ileitis
    Crohns that affects the ileum
  56. gastroduodenal crohn's disease
    affects the stomach and duodenum
  57. Jejunoileitis
    cause spotty patches of inflamation in the top half of the small intesting (jejunum)
  58. crohn's (granulomatous) colitis
    only affects the large intestine
  59. What are dianosis test for chrons disease
    • Blood work
    • Sigmoidoscopy
    • colonscopy with biopsy
  60. Treatments for Crohns
    • anti-inflamatory medications
    • immunosuppressive agents
    • surgery
  61. Chronic ulcerative colitis
    a chronic inflamation of the colon and rectum with persiod of remission and excerbation that may lead to incresed risk for colon malignancy
  62. Possible causes of ulcerative colitis
    • Automimmune disorders
    • e. coli infection
    • stress
    • hypersensitivity ot certain foods
  63. What are sysmptoms of ulceratice colitis
    • Diarrhea with pus, blood, and mucus
    • anemia due to chronic blood loss through the rectum
  64. What are diagnosis techniques for ulcerative colitis
    • colonsocopy
    • Barium enema
  65. What are treatment for ulcerative colitis
    • Treatments are aimed to reduce symptoms, replace nutrients stop blood loss and prevent complications
    • Gulcoorticosteroids
    • colostomy