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What is conflict analysis?
Theoretical approach that assumes social systems are in a state of tension, with unrest as the basic condition, as a result of the unequal distribution of scarce resources
A relationship between two variables
A variable influenced systematically by changes in the independent variable
A social construction model that treats social interaction as a series of mini-dramas.
A technique for looking under the taken-for-granted surface of daily life by turning it upside down to reveal an unspoken reality
Thereotical approach that explains human behavior in evolutionary and biological terms
Experiments that take place outside the lab but where some aspect of the environment can be manipulated to influence the responses of unaware (naïve) subjects.
Theoretical approach that directs attention to women's experience and to the importance of gender as an element of social structure.
Theoretical approach that views collectivities including entire societies as structured in such a way that, over time, the various parts come to reinforce one another.
Theoretical approach based on the belief that a value-free sociology is not possible and that attempts as employing one only reinforce existing inequalities and injustice.
A testable guess, derived from theory, about relationships among variables.
In research studies, the independent variable has the greatest impact, comes first in the chain of events, is relatively fixed, and/or affects dependent variables.
A research method in which the same people or variables are followed over several years.
This form of analysis focuses on the broad outline or larger picture of society and social institutions.
A statistic whereby the average is derived by dividing the total number of units.
Measures of Central Tendency
Single numbers that summarize an entire set of data
The midpoint in a distribution; it is a statistic that deals with the problem of extremes.
This form of analysis focuses on the smaller aspects of society and social interactions, looking intensely at a limited set of objects.
A statistic that pinpoints the single most common or frequent item in an array of data.
A conceptual model of how the world works.
A research method in which the researcher becomes part of the interaction under study.
A statistic that shows how many of a given item there are in every 100 cases.
Theoretical approach that views all claims to "the truth" as suspect because they are based on the meanings given to words in one society at a given historical moment.
New information gathered specifically for a particular research project.
Research method that relies primarily on interpretive description rather than statistics. Examples: interviews, ethnography, participant observation
Research method that uses the features of scientific objectivity, including complex statistical techniques. Examples include: surveys, experiments
Research technique for selecting a manageable number of cases that, within statistical limits, can be said to stand for an entire category.
A measure of how many times a given item appears in a population; the base is usually greater than 100, such as 1,000 or 100,000. (Rate is numerator, base is demoninator - usually large like 250 out of 100,000)
Rational Choice Theory
Theoretical approach based on a narrow economic view of behavior in which people and organizations tend to do that which brings the most benefit at the least cost.
A statistic that permits comparison of one subpopulation with another, such as the ratio of men to women.
A set of procedures, developed in the natural sciences, consisting of objective observations, precise measurement, and full disclosure of results.
Steps: Definining the problem, reviewing the literature, formulating the hypothesis, selecting the research design then collecting and analyzing data, developing the conclusion
Research done by reworking existing data, such as those found in government publications, historical records, and diaries and letters
A social construction model that focuses on communication through shared understandings and on humans' constant interaction with others.
A feeling of bewilderment when normative guidance is lacking or ambiguous
Material items such as pottery, tents, or spears.
A formal organization characterized by rationality and efficiency, so that large-scale tasks can be accomplished.
The ability to appreciate the content of other cultures without making value judgements.
The variety of customs, beliefs, and artifcats devised by humans to meet universal needs.
The ways of thinking, believing and acting that are shared by members of a society.
The belief that one's own culture is the best and therefore the standard by which other cultures are judged.
A social structure characterized by impersonality, ranked positions, large size, relative complexity, and long duration.
Characterized by a distinctive set of relationships, interdependence, and a sense of membership
A set of ranked statuses from least to most powerful.
Made up of sizable numbers of citizens who worship different gods and are of varying skin colors and national origins.
Made up of people who are similar in terms of race, religion, and ethnic background.
Relationships that are maintained as a means to another goal.
The study of nonverbal communication
Norms that govern behavior considered essential to group survival
Focuses on society as a whole or on social systems at a high level of abstraction
The need to prove one's worth through accumulating objects of value.
Focuses on intermediate-level analysis, such as oganizational activity.
Focuses on smaller units of social systems, such as face-to-face interactions
Norms governing matters of moral and ethical importance, such as courtship conduct or showing respect to ancestors
Rules that regulate behavior and ensure social order
Close-knit, intimate groups of individuals
Behavior attached to each status
Reactions that convey approval or disapproval
Groupings that are more formal and impersonal than primary groups
The sum total of an individual's group membership
A collective reality that exists apart from indivduals and forms the context in which people interact
Consists of variations of values, beliefs, norms, and behavior amount social subgroups
Signifies nothing in and of itself but which is given meaning by the agreement of group members.
A three-person group
Elements of culture found in every society from the small gathering bands of the Amazon rain forest to the United States
Refers to the central belief of a culture that provides standards against which norms can be judged.
the scientific study of social behavior and human groups
- Responsible for coining term "sociology"
- Focused on two aspects of society:
- - social statics - forces which produce order and stability
- - social dynamics - forces which contribute to social change
- Authored one of the earliest analyses of culture and life in the US
- Translated Compte's Positive Philosophy into English
- father of conflict theory
- saw human history in constant battle between two major classes
- - Bourgeoisie - owners of the means of production (capitalists)
- - Proletariat - the workers
- moved sociology fully into the realm of an empiracal science
- most well known empirical study called Suicide, where he looked at the social causes of suicide
- generally regarded as founder of Functionalist Theory
- Most famous work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism directly challenged Marx's ideas on the role of religion in society.
- Much of his work was a critique or clarification of Marx
- Interested in bureaucrocies and the process of rationaliszation in society
- - Sees society as a system of highly interrelated parts that work together harmoniously
- - The image used to understand society is a "living organism"
- - Each part of society works together for the benefit of the whole, much like a living organism
- - Grounded in the work of Karl Marx
- - Society is understood to be made up of conflicting interest groups who vie for power and priviledge
- - This dynamic results in continuous social change, which is the normal state of affairs.
- - Focuses heavily on inequality and differential distribution of power and wealth
- - Focuses on how individuals make sense of and interpret the world
- - Tends to focus on the "micro-order" of small groups
- -Has given rise to several specific approaches:
- -Symbolic interactivism by George Herbert Mead
- - Ethnomethodology by Harld Garfinkel
- - Dramaturgy by Erving Goffman
- - Focuses on inequality in gender as being a major sociological issue
- - Ida Wells-Barnett was one of the leading thinkers of this perspective
- - Associated with conflict theory
- - Advocated for equliity in research to include women and also to include men in women's issues with women
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative studies?
quantitive - uses datat that can easily be converted into numbers (surveys, experiments)
qualitative - involves data that can't easily be converted to numbers (words, observations, interviews)
What problems arise when applying scientific method to human behavior?
- Difficult to measure human behavior
- Difficult to not disturb population you are studying
- Many confounding factors (too many independent variables)
- Value neutrality
Define hypothesis. How is it related to variables?
A hypothesis is a speculative statement about the relationship between two or more variables.
What are the four major research types of research methods used by sociologists?
- - surveys (ex: Census)
- - observational studies (ex: participant observation/ethnography)
- - experiments - artificially created situation that allows researcher to manipulate variables
- - secondary analysis (ex: examining Census data)
Explain the evolutionary basis of culture.
- Hunter/gatherer -> Pastoral -> Horticultural -> Agricultural
- -> Feudal -> Industrial -> Post-Industrial
Identify the elements of culture.
Culture is the entire way of life for a group of people
- material culture - includes the objects associated with a cultural group
- symbolic culture - includes ways of thinking (beliefs, values and assumptions)
- -Signs, gestures, language
Why are symbols key to the development of culture?
Language is a system of communication using vocal sounds, gestures and written symbols. And some argue that it shapes not just our communication but perception of how we see things as well. It's a key part of language development and language development is crucial to the development of culture.
Explain how survival needs are related to cultural universals
cultural universals - certain common practices and beliefs in a culture
many of these universals are adaptations to meet essential human needs (food, shelter, clothing)