Gov't Test 1 Study Guide

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Gov't Test 1 Study Guide
2012-09-20 21:35:34
Gov government

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  1. Direct Democracy
    • Everyone is a part of it
    • whole population votes on issues
  2. Representative Democracy (& benefits
    • - People elect representatives to make the decisions for them
    • - Good because: people don’t have time for everything & people often make decisions quickly & emotionally over logically
  3. Authority
    The right to act in a specified way/ use power
  4. Power
    The ability to do something/ get things done
  5. Articles of Confederation (1777)
    • the document that created the first central government for the United States
    • replaced by the Constitution in 1789
  6. Federalist Papers
    • collection of essays on the principles of gov’t
    • written in defense of the Constitution in 1787 & 1788
  7. Publius
    •  pen name used when writing the Federalist Papers
    • used by Framers Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay
  8. Constitutional Convention
    the convention in Philadelphia (1787) of representatives from each of the former Colonies, except Rhode Island, at which the constitution of the United States was framed
  9. Primaries
    A preliminary election to appoint delegates to a party conference
  10. Caucuses
    meeting of party members who select the candidates to run for election
  11. Delegates
    represent absent party members
  12. Electors
    generally party loyalists; chosen by a vote in each party
  13. Faithless Electors
    electors who do not vote for the candidate they originally pledged
  14. Electoral College
    the body of 538 people elected from the 50 states & the District of Columbia to cast the official votes that elect the president & vice president
  15. Referendum
    • the practice of submitting a law to a popular vote at election time
    • the law may be proposed by a voter’s initiative or by legislature
  16. Mayflower Compact (1620)
    All men abroad agreed to form a society based on majority rule with the consent of the government
  17. Fundamental Orders of Conneticut (1639)
    laws that limited the gov'ts powere
  18. Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641)
    Protected individual's rights
  19. Republicanism
    • Broad set of ideas about representative gov't
    • traced back to ancient Greece & Rome
    • --Citizen participation
    • --Public good
    • --Civic virtue (common good above private interests)
  20. Niccolo Machiavelli
    said a republic can only survive as long as its citizens actively participate & put the good of the republic before their own needs
  21. Charles de Montesquieu
    said gov’t must be divided between the legislative, executive, & judicial branches
  22. Divine Right of Kings
    • A ruler is chosen by God
    • A ruler’s power stems from God  absolute power
    • King is answerable ONLY to God, NOT the people
    • To disagree with the king is to disagree with God
  23. Social Contract Theory
    • Agreement between citizens and gov’ts
    • Citizens give up individual power in exchange for services & security
  24. Natural Law/Natural Rights
    • All people, by being human, possess natural rights
    • A legitimate gov’t does NOT violate natural laws 
    • If a gov’t commands unjust things, people don’t have to obey
  25. Stamp Act of 1765
    required a gov’t tax stamp on all paper goods
  26. Intolerable Acts
    •  Closed Boston Harbor
    • Ended all forms of colonial self-rule 
    • Quartered British troops in colonist’s consent
  27. First Continental Congress
    a meeting of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to decide how to respond to the abuses of authority by the British gov’t
  28. Olive Branch Petition
    • last ditch plea for the King to repeal all measures
    • king refused & declared the colonies to be in rebellion
    • the Continental Congress was now forced to function as an independent gov’t
  29. Plurality
    when a candidate in an election has more votes than any other candidate
  30. Majority
    when a candidate has more than 50% of the votes
  31. Magna Carta
    a charter agreed to by King John of England that granted nobles certain rights and restricted the king’s powers