Card Set Information
assumptions about a whole group or range of cases
on a sample that is inadequate or with little evidence (usually because it is
atypical or too small).
solution or an explanation that is too simple for the problem or issue being
argued. This fault overlooks the complexity of an issue.
form of generalization or oversimplification in which an entire group is
narrowly labeled or perceived on the basis of a few in the group.
– falsely claiming that, because something resembles
something else in one way, it resembles is in all ways.
Drawing inferences or conclusions that do not follow
logically from available evidence.
– Attacking the character of the arguer rather than
the argument itself.
Begging the Question
complicated fallacy, an argument that begs the question asks the reader to
simply accept the conclusion without providing real evidence.
Partway through an argument, the arguer goes off on a
tangent, raising a side issue that
distracts the audience from what's really at stake. Often, the arguer never
returns to the original issue.
Post Hoc (false cause)
Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B.
Missing the Point
- The premises of an argument do support a particular
conclusion – but not
the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.
- The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction,
usually ending in some dire consequence,
will take place, but there's really not enough evidence for that assumption
. Weak Analogy
Many arguments rely on an analogy between two or more
objects ideas, or situations. If the two things that are being compared aren't really
alike in the relevant respects, the analogy is a weak one
Appeal to Authority
add strength to our arguments by referring to respected sources or authorities
& explaining their positions on issues we're discussing
Appeal to Pity
It takes place when an arguer tries to get people to accept
a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
Appeal to Ignorance
In this one, the arguer basically says, "Look,
there's no conclusive evidence on the issue at hand. Therefore, you should
accept my conclusion on this issue."
. Straw Man
One way of making our own arguments stronger is to
anticipate and respond in advance to the arguments that an opponent might
make. The arguer sets up a wimpy version
of the opponent’s position and tries to score point by knocking it down.
– In this one, the arguer sets up situation so it
looks like there are only two choices. The arguer then eliminates one of the
choices, so it seems that we are left with only one option
: the one the arguer
wanted us to pick in the first place.
Sliding between two or more different meanings of a
single word or phrase that is important to the argument.