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paleness of skin
Nonsterioidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Medical specilaist of the blood and its disorders
What is Blood?
Blood is a type of connective tissue that consists
What is blood compose of?
- Blood is compose of 55% Plasma and 45% of formed elements which is:
- Red blood cell(RBC)
- White blood cell(WBC)
- & Platelets
what do White blood cell(WBC) do?
It helps fight off infection and disease
What do Red blood cell(RBC) do ?
It carry oxygen to the cells in your body and remove waste. They are red because of the protein called hemoglobin.
Whats the difference between serum and plasma?
Blood plasma still contains the proteins that allow it to clot: fibrinogen and other clotting factors, whereas blood serum has had the clotting factors removed.
How does red blood cell looks?
- they are Round and carncave.
- -They are shape that way beacuse its eaiser to move (tumble)
Whats is HB?
Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs.
What is Hematocrit (Hct)?
it's the % of total blood volume composed of red blood cells
What are the function of the blood?
- -maintains the bodys homeostasis
- -Transport nutrients,vitamins, and minerals
- -transport waste product
- -transport hormones
- -protects against foreign substances
- -forms clots
Decreased number of red blood cells
Platelet also know as Thrombocyte are:
Small particle involved in the clotting process
Abbv Co2 is:
a condition resulting from too little iron in the body. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency and the leading cause of anemia in the world
About Pernicious Anemia (PA):
is a decrease in red blood cells that occurs when the body cannot properly absorb vitamin B12.
- -WITHOUT B12 HEMOGLOBIN(HB OR HGB) CANNOT FOR.
- -mainly seen in older adults
Sickle cell Anemia:
is a gentic disorder found mostly in african americans. RBCs have an abnormal crescent shape. This makes them sticky and rigid. They can get trapped in small vessels and block blood from reaching different parts of the body. This can cause pain and tissue damage.
condition in which red blood cells are destroyed and removed from the bloodstream
condition where bone marrow does not produce sufficient new cells to replenish blood cells
Below normal levels of oxygen in tissue,gases,or blood
is too many white blood cells and often indicates the presence of an infection
The types of White Blood Cells(WBC) can be categorized by:
Granulocytes or Argranulocytes
Neutrophils also called Polymorphonuclear leukocytes(PMNL)
Are normally 55% to 65% of the total wbc count. These cell ingest: Bacteria,Fungi,and some viruses.
-Takes up PURPLE STAIN.
the number of neutrophil is decreased
the number of neutrophils is incresaed
are mainly 2%-4% of the white blood count
- (ATRACTS A ROSY-REDCOLOR)
- * they leave the blppdstream to enter tissue that is undergoing allergic reaction.
Normally 1% of total white blood count.
- (Attracts a basic blue color)
- *Basophil migrate and damaged tissues to release histamine
are the largest blood cells and are normally 3%-8% of total WBC count.
- Monocyte leaves the bloodstream and become Macrophages; which ingest bacteria,dead neutriphils, and dead cells in tissue.
- are the smallest white blood cell and comprise 25%-35% of total white blood count.
- -Lymphocytes are produced in red bone marrow and migrate through the bloodstream to lympthaic tissues-(Lymph nodes,tonsils,spleen,and tymus) where they multiply
Differential White blood count (Diff)
the list of % of the different leukocytes in a blood sample
emic-pretaining to blood condition
leukemic cells multiply, taking over the bone marrow and causing dificiency of normal RBC,WBC,and Platelets.
*Making the patient anemic and vulnerable to infection and bleeding
The WBC count drops below 5,000. its seen in viral infection like measkes,mumps,chickenpox,AIDS
dificiency of all types of blood cells are lower
Difference b/w HEMOSTASIS AND HOMOSTASIS
Hemostasis- The stoppage of bleeding
Homostasis- State of the body
Platelet Role in Hemostasis:
they are mintue fragments of large bone marrow cells, and consist of small amount granular cytoplasm. They have NO NUCLEUS
Thrombus formation (thrombosis):
is a clot that forms attached to a diseased or damaged area on the walls of blood vessels or the heart.
process of blood clotting
Antigens and Antibodies:
are molecules that exist on the surface of red blood cell.Antibodies are presented in plasma.each Antibody can combine with only one antigen.
whcih cells or other particles adhere to each others to form clumps
There are two groups:
ABO AND RH:
ABO is a blood group system
given to mother whose Rh factor is negative and the child Rh factor is positive.
Abbv: HDN and RH
Hemolyic disease of the newborn
Begins in the caplliars and End in ducts
the organ that is responsible for purifying the blood as well as storing blood cells. It is positioned in the superior abdomen, and is the largest lymphatic organ in the body.
-Located in the left upper quadrant
Lymphoma two groups:
Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma:
- hodgkin occur in younger people
- Non-Hodgkin occur in older adults
Tissue swelling due to lymphatic obstruction
The immue system is not an organ system but a group of specialized cells in different parts of the body.
Third Line Defense of Immue System:
- 1. Specificity
- 2. Memory
- 3. Discrimination
an severe, whole-body allergic reaction. After being exposed to a substance like bee sting venom, the person's immune system becomes sensitized to that allergen.
Bacteria that normally live in the GI tract but cause infection eleswhere.
Abbv: MRSA AND CA-MARSA
- Methichillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus
- Ca-Community associated
- West Nile Virus
- is a seasonal epidemic in North america