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human physiology specialties include?
- cell physiology (function of living cells)
- speical physiology (study of the physiology of specific organs
- systematic phyiology (study of all aspects of the fuction of specific organ systems)
- pathological physiology (study of the effects of diseases on organ or system functions
relative stability with variations over time
is homeostasis dependent or interdependent on organ systmes working together?
Give some examples of the sources of homeostatic disruptions.
- external (heat, cold, lack of oxygen)
- internal (body temperature, blood pressure, concetration of water)
what is the regulated variable, set point and error signal in homeostasis?
- that aspect that is maintained in homeostasis
- expected value of regulated variable
- difference between the value of set point and regulated variable
what are the components of homeostatic regulation?
- receptor: receives stimulus regarding the regulated variable (body's temperature sensors sense the rise of body temp)
- control center: processes and integrates information from the receptor (thermoregulatory center in brain)
- effector: responds to the control center to change in body's response (blood vessels and sweat glands in skin)
what is negative feedback and how does the rate of change change?
- negative feedback is the response that moves variable in the opposite direction of stress
- rate of change decreases as the variable reaches normal values
what is body's level of organization?
- chemical level: atoms combine to form molecules, which join to form complex contractile protein fibers
- cellular level: interlocking heart muscle cells form cardiac muscle tissue
- tissue: cardiac muscle tissue makes up the bulk of the walls of the heart
- organ level: heart is a complex organ composed of different tissues
- organ system level: the cardiovascular system includes the heart, blood and blood vessels
- organism level: all the organ systems must work together for a eprson to remain alive and healthy
what is the difference between glucagon and insulin?
- glucagon is released into the circulatory system when blood glucose is low; it signals the liver to break down glycogen into simple glucose
- insulin is released into the circulatory system when blood glucose is high; it facilitates the transport of glucose into target cells
what is positive feedback? How does its rate of change change? what is needed in a normal positive feedback?
- response moves body in the same direction as stress
- Rate of change increases as variable reaches tolerance limites
- must have a built in "stop" signal
- blood clots and childbirth