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what is diffusion?
the movement of object down its concentration gradient
what is the difference between hypotonic and hypertonic?
- hypotonic: low solutes, high water concentration; causes cell swelling and lysis
- hypertonic: high solutes, low water concentration; causes cell crenation or shrinking
what is filtration?
- filtration is a passive process in which hydrostatic pressure forces water across a membrane.
- if solute molecules are small enough to fit through memebrane pores, they will be carried along with the water
how does the active transport work?
- active transport requires ATP to move a solute against its concentration gradient
- ATP helps with the binding and unbinding of phosphate molecules which alters the transport protein shape
- ion pumps (creates new gradient, which equals stored portention energy)
- exchange pump: ATP driven countertransport mechanism
what do cells use to move molecules that are too large for transport across membrances?
- endocytosis: import substances useful to the livelihood of the cell (receprot mediated endocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis)
- exocytosis: export molecules, such as proteins or polysaccharides
- material to be transported is packaged within a besicle that fuses with the membrane
what is the difference between meiosis and mitosis?
mitosis conserves the number of chromosome sets, producing cells that are genetically idential to the parent cell while meiosis reduces the nubmer of chromosomes sets from two (diploid) to one (haploid), producing cells that differ genetically from each other and the
what is produced in glycolysis?
breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, tow molecules of NAD+ are reduced to two molces of NADH. A net of two molecules of ATP is produced
where does the citric acid cycle take place? what enters? and what happens?
pyruvate is groomed as acetyl CoA (2 which enters the citric acid cycle in the mitochondria and supplies electron transport with electrons