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Anything that has mass and takes up space or volume
Define Volume and give common units
The amount of space taken up by an object.
Liters (L), milliliters (mL), cm3
Define Graduated Cylinder
An instrument for measuring liquid volume.
The curve at the surface of a liquid
Define Mass and give examples of common units
The amount of matter in an object.
grams (g), kg (kilograms), milligrams (mg)
Define Weight and give examples of common units
The measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object.
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
What is the formula for the Volume of a regularly shaped object
Length x Width x Height
What is the formula for Displacement (i.e. Volume of an irregular object)
Volume of water with the object submerged minus the volume of water without the object.
Formula for converting from grams to Newtons
g/100 = N
(1 Newton = 100 grams on Earth)
Define "Physical Property"
A characteristic of a substance that does not involve a chemical change (such as density, color or hardness)
give the formula and
give common metric units
Density is the amount of matter in a given space or volume.
D = m/V
Define "Physical Change"
A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties.
Formula for converting from mL to cm3
1 mL = 1 cm3
Define "Chemical Properties"
A property of matter that describes a substance's ability to participate in chemical reactions.
Define "Chemical Change"
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into an entirely new substance with different properties.
The ability to combine multiple substances into one.
The ability for a substance to burn
What are the 3 states of matter ?
Solid, liquid and gas
Define a "Solid"
Matter with a definite shape and volume.
Matter with a definite volume but it takes the shape of its container
Matter that has no definite shape or volume
Describe how "solid" particles react with each other.
The particles are close together. Attraction between them is strong. They vibrate in place.
Describe how "liquid" particles react with each other.
Particles move fast enough to overcome some of the attraction between them.
Describe how "gas" particles react with each other.
Particles move quickly. They break away completely from one another. Less attraction between them than solid or liquid states.
What is matter made up of ?
Atoms and molecules.
Describe a "crystalline solid" and give an example
Its particles have an ordered three-dimensional pattern.
Describe a "amorphous solid" and give an example
Its particles are not arranged in any particular pattern.
What are the two special properties/characteristics of liquids ?
Surface tension and viscosity
Define "surface tension"
A force that acts on the particles at the surface of a liquid
A liquid's resistance to flow
How do gases behave differently from solids and liquids ?
Gases change in both shape and volume.
Fill-in the blanks: Gas volume changes based on ___________ and _____________ .
Temperature and pressure
How does temperature affect gases ?
Increasing the temperature causes the particles to move more quickly. Decreasing the temperature causes the particles to move more slowly.
True or False: Particles of gas can be squeezed together tightly into a smaller volume.
The amount of force exerted on a given area of surface
A measure of how hot or cold something is; a measure of the movement of particles
How do we measure pressure ?
An air pressure gauge measures the pounds per square in (lbs/in2)
Multiple choice: The more air in a given area the __________ .
a) lesser the pressure, b) greater the pressure, c) pressure is the same, d) none of the above.
b) greater the pressure
What do gas behavior laws show us the relationship between ?
A gas' temperature, pressure and volume.
True or false: Temperature, pressure and volume: changing one of these factors in a gas changes the other two factors ?
What is Boyle's law and what does it show the relationship between?
It states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure of a gas when temperature is constant.
Volume and pressure.
What is Charles's law and what does it show the relationship between
It states that the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature of a gas when the pressure is constant.
Volume and temperature.
What is "change of state" ? Give an example.
The change of a substance from one physical form to another.
Ice melting into water
The state of matter is based on the amount of __________ in the substance.
How would you change the state of matter ?
By either heating it (adding energy) or cooling it (removing energy).
Which state of matter has the most amount of energy?
Which state of matter has the least amount of energy?
What is melting ?
The change of state in which a solid becomes a liquid by adding energy.
What is the melting point ?
The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid.
What is an endothermic change ?
A change where energy is gained by a substance as it changes states.
What is an exothermic change ?
A change where energy is removed from a substance as it changes states.
What is freezing ?
The change of state from a liquid to a solid.
What is the freezing point ?
The temperature at which a substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
What is evaporation and where does it occur ?
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas.
It occurs at the surface of a liquid that is below its boiling point.
What is boiling ?
The change of a liquid to a gas (also called vapor) throughout the liquid.
How is boiling different from evaporation ?
- Boiling occurs when the liquid is at its boiling point.
- Evaporation occurs when the liquid is below its boiling point.
- Boiling occurs throughout the liquid.
- Evaporation only occurs at the surface of the liquid.
How does atmospheric pressure affect boiling point?
As atmospheric pressure drops (like on tops of moutains) the boiling point will be lower.
As atmospheric pressure increases (like when you're below sea-level) the boiling point will be higher.
What is condensation ?
The change of state from a gas to a liquid. It is the reverse of evaporation.
What is the condensation point ?
The temperature at which the gas becomes a liquid.
What is sublimation and give an example ?
The change of state in which a solid chages directly into a gas.
Dry ice sublimates.
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