PSYC of G ch. 4

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PSYC of G ch. 4
2012-09-22 22:07:04

PSYC of G ch. 4
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  1. steroid hormones important to sexual development and behavior
    • androgens
    • estrogens
    • progestins
  2. function of prenatal production and during puberty of androgens, estrogens and progestins
    • prompts the bodies and brains of fetuses to organize in either male or female pattern
    • work toward developing fertility and prompt the production of secondary sex characteristics
  3. testosterone
    • an androgen
    • plays a role in maintaining sexual activity in men (and possible women)
  4. five stages of sexual development
    • genetic
    • gonadal
    • hormonal
    • internal genitalia
    • external genitalia
  5. genetic stage of sexual development
    • inheritance of either XX or XY chromosomes
    • embryos not sexually dimorphic until 6 weeks (those with XY develop testes)
  6. female pattern and dependency on estrogens
    not as dependent on presense of estrogens as male pattern is on androgens
  7. 6th week of pregnancy
    • XX pattern:
    • - develop Mullerian structures - ovaries; fallopian tubes; uterus; upper vagina
    • - Wolffian structures degenerate
  8. affect of absense of all steroid hormones
    allow the feminization of external genitalia, but the internal reproductive organs to not develop normally
  9. brain development and prenatal hormones
    • produce differences in males and females
    • sexually dimorphic nucleus of the hypothalamus shows the biggest difference - function not known
  10. variance from the typical female or male patterns
    • can occur at any stage of sexual development
    • results in disorders with fewer or more sex chromosomes than typical
    • some produce problems with development of internal or external genitalia
    • often produce individuals with lowered intelligence
    • X0; XXY; XXX; XYY
  11. X0
    • turner syndrome
    • individuals appear to be female but lack ovaries
  12. XXY
    • Klinefelter syndrome
    • appear to be male
    • often with feminized body contours
    • have nonfunctional testes
  13. XXX
    • individuals are female
    • vary little from XX individuals
  14. XYY
    • individuals are male
    • very tall
    • may reproduce normally
    • have low intelligence
  15. role for hormones in two areas of problem behavior
    • premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
    • aggression
    • research suggests that expectation and attribution are the factors that underlie widespread reports of PMS
  16. testosterone and aggression
    • men with higher-than-average testosterone levels tend to engage in a wide variety of antisocial behaviors but usually not violence
    • studies show that aggression increases testoterone
    • testosterone and aggression are mediated through some other factor, such as personality or peer influence
  17. sexes and culture
    • how culture delineates the sexes varies enormously
    • some cultures define a third sex
    • non-Western cultures: intersex individuals
    • Native American societies: a melding of the two spirits
    • hijras in India: women who take the roles of men may be considered a third sex
  18. androgen insensitivity syndrome
    • a disorder in which body cells are unable to respond to androgens
    • results in the feminization of chromosomal males
  19. androgens
    • class of hormones that includes testosterone and other steroid hormones
    • men typically produce more androgrens than estrogens
  20. congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
    • disorder that results in masculinization
    • produces premature puberty in boys and masculinization of the external genitalia in girls
    • also called adrenogenital syndrome
  21. endocrine glands
    glands that secrete hormones into the circulatory system
  22. estradiol
    the most common of the estrogen hormones
  23. estrogens
    • class of hormones that includes estradiol and other steroid hormones
    • women typically produce more estrogens than androgens
  24. external genitalia
    • the reproductive structures that can be seen without internal examination
    • clitoris, labia, vaginal opening
    • penis and scrotum
  25. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    gonadotropic hormone that stimulates development of gonads during puberty and development of ova during the years of women's fertility
  26. gonads
    reproductive organs
  27. hermaphroditism
    a disorder in which individuals have characteristics of both sexes
  28. hormones
    chemical substances released from endocrine glands that circulate throughout the body and affect target organs that hae receptors sensitive to the specific hormones
  29. internal genitalia
    • the internal reproductive organs
    • ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, upper vagina
    • testes, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, prostate gland
  30. intersexuality
    more modern term for hermaphroditism
  31. Klinefelter syndrom
    • disorder that ocurs when a chromosomal male has an extra X chromosome
    • results in XXY pattern of chromosome pair 23
    • have appearance of males
    • may also develop breasts and feminized body shape
    • not capable of producing sperm
  32. lateralization
    the concept that the two cerebral hemispheres are not functionally equal but rather that each hemisphere has different purposes
  33. luteinizing hormone (LH)
    the gonadotropic hormone that prompts sexual development during puberty and also causes a maturing ovum to be released
  34. menarche
    the first menstruation
  35. Mullerian system
    a system of ducts occurring in both male and female embryos that forms the basis for the development of the female internal reproductive system
  36. pituitary gland
    an endocrine gland within the brain that produces tropic hormones that stimulate other glands to produce yet other hormones
  37. progestins
    • a group of steroid hormones that prepares the female body for pregnancy
    • function for the male is unknown
  38. releasing hormones
    hormones produced by the hypothalamus that act on the pituitary to release tropic hormones
  39. sexual dimorphism
    • the existence of two sexes (male and femal)
    • including differences in genetics, gonads, hormones, internal genitalia, and external genitalia
  40. sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN)
    the brain structure in the hypothalamus, near the optic chiasm, that is larger in male rats than in female rats and larger in men than in women
  41. spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus
    a collection of neurons in the lower spinal cord that control muscles at the base of the penis
  42. steroid hormones
    hormones related to sexual dimorphism and sexual reproduction that are derived from cholesterol and consist of a structure that includes four carbon rings
  43. testosterone
    the most common of the androgen hormones
  44. tropic hormones
    • hormones produced by the pituitary gland that influence the release of other hormones by other glandsĀ 
    • ex: gonads
  45. Turner syndrome
    • disorder that occurs when an individual only has one chromosome of the pair 23, the X
    • appear to be female (have external genitalia of females)
    • do not have fully developed internal genitalia
    • do not produce estrogens, do not undergo puberty, are not fertile
  46. Wolffian system
    system of ducts occurring in both male and female embryos that forms the basis for the development of the male internal reproductive system
  47. X chromosome
    • one of the possible alternatives for chromosome pair 23
    • two X make a genetic female
    • males have one X
  48. Y chromosome
    • one of the possible alternatives for chromosome pair 23
    • one X and one Y make a genetic male
    • females have no Y chromosomes