intro to physio

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intro to physio
2012-09-22 01:01:45

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  1. what are the three types of muscle tissue?
    • skeletal muscle tissue
    • cardiac muscle tissue
    • smooth muscle tissue
  2. describe the traits and function of skeletal muscle tissue
    • cells are long, clindrical, striated (parallel), and multi-nucleate
    • combined with connective tissues and neural tissue in skeletal muscles
    • moves or stabilizes the position of the skeleton; guards entrances and exits to the digestive, respiratory tracts; generates heat; protects internal organs
  3. function and traits of cardiac muscle tissue
    • cells are short, branched, and striated, usually with a single nucleus, celler are interconnected by intercalated discs
    • located in the heart
    • circulates blood, maintains blood (hydrostatic) pressure
  4. smooth muscle tissue characteristics
    • cells are short, spindleoshaped, and nonstriated with single nucleus
    • all of blood vessels and digestive, respiratory organs
    • moves food, urine, and reproductive tract secretions, regulates diameter of blood vessels
  5. what are the five skeletal muscle functions
    • produce movement of the skeleton
    • maintain body position and posture
    • support soft tissues
    • guard entrances and exits
    • maintain body temperature
  6. what is the organization of skeletal muscle tissue called?
    organs that contains connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, skeletal muscle tissue
  7. what is the purpose of extensive network of blood vessels in skeletal muscle provide?
    nutrients and oxygen; skeletal muscles have high metabolic needs
  8. is skeletal muscle tissue under voluntary or involuntray control?
    voluntary; must be stimulated by central nervous system
  9. how are muscle fibers (myocyte) formed?
    from specialized stem cells called myoblasts into one long multinucleated muscle fiber
  10. what does the graph of muscle fiber tell us about its development?
    you were born wil all your muscle cells
  11. what are the implications of the decline in myoblast proliferation?
    less able to repiar muscle cells
  12. how do tendons form?
    where the ends of all three layers of connective tissue come togethe and attach the muscle to a bone
  13. what is scarcolemma
    muscle fiber plasma membrane has opneing acorss the surface that lead to a network of t-tubles (which allow signals to be effectively communicated to all)
  14. what are myofribrils?
    bundles of thick and think myofilaments (contractile proteins)
  15. what does the sarcoplsmic reticulum contain?
    high level of calcium ions
  16. how are the Z and M line related to thick and thin filaments
    M line has the thick filaments while the Z line had the thin filaments
  17. what is the relationship between actin and myosin?
    actin is a thin twisted protein, with specific active sites for myosin binding
  18. what is tropomyosin?
    protein that are held in position by troponin (green line) in the active sites
  19. what are the A, I and H bands for?
    • A is all the thick filaments including thin
    • I is just the thin filaments
    • H is only thick
  20. which of the bands or zones would not change as muscle is contracted?
    A band
  21. what is nebulin
    • an actin binding protein localized to the thin filament of the sarcomeres in skeletal muscle
    • acts as a thin filament "ruler" and regulates thin filament length during sarcomere assembly
    • stabilize actin, keep it straight so myosin can bind
  22. what is titin
    giant protein that functions as a molecular spring which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle