search for personal, inner understanding (ethics based on reason
Wrote a history of the Peloponnesian War focusing on the Greek world.
Wrote an actual account of the war not a history
The first historian
Wrote "inquiries" (in Greek, historia) about the Persian War
Wrote about the memories of the people of the war from both sides
Professional reachers in fifth-century Greece who traveled from city to city instructing students, for a fe, in rhetoric, the art of persuasion
Athenian dramatist (525-456 BC)
Traced the fate of the family of Agamemnon
Athenian dramatist (496-406 BC)
wrote tragedies to express human character, make free choices
Athenian dramatict (485-406 BC)
Plays abound in plots and twists and unexpected violence
Atheninan sculptor (500-430 BC)
sculptures sought a naturalism in the portrayal of the human figure
made a bronze statue of Athena Promachos that was in the center of the acropolis
Considered by many to be a Sophists
Refused payment for his teaching
Searched for the moral self-enlightenment urged by Heraclitus
Condemned to death for "corrupting the morals of the Athenian youth"
Athenian comic genius (450-388 BC)
mocks and ridicules sttesment, philosophers, and even gods
Greek women force the men to make peace by refusing to have sex
Athenian acropolis was the greates complex of building in the ancient world
Architectural style distinguished by the simple but fulid patterns of flowers and scrolls on its capitals, patterns borrowed from Oriental architecture.
every surface curves slightly
Defeated the Spartan's in 371, when Sparta attacked
The next year they invaded the Peloponnesus and freed Messenia.
Lost their power when they tried to invade Phocis in 355 BC
Student of Socrates
used dialogue to teach, believed in Forms
believed the evils of the world result form ignorance of the truth
believed a philospher's task was to break the chains and turn the people toward the source of the light so that they could see the world as it really was
"Truth would make them free"
was in favor of a philosophy rooted in the natural world
Systematic investigation and explanation
most famous student was Alexander, the son of King Philip of Macedon
The philosophy propounded by Aristotle which rejected Play's idea of abstract Forms in favor of practical obervation and explanation, building general theories from particular data.
moved into the power vacuum left by Athens and Sparta after they destroyed each other
King Philip II was the ruler at the time 359-336 BC
King of Medonia
political acumen and military skill
took over one Greek city-state after another
then was going to attack Persia but was assassinated at age of 46
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II, became King after Philip was assassinated
within 13 years Alexander had conquered the world
was affected by poet Homer more than his teacher Aristotle
his hero was the hero of Iliad.
Military genius and was able to motivate and move troops over great distances
Known as the greates conquerer of all time
The League of Corinth
empire formed by Philip II, who ruled as a monarchy
supported by wealthy citizens who the king rewarded
Ruled Egypt after the death of Alexander.
Was one of Alexander's closest followers
the most vibrant center of the complex social change and culture
political and commerce city of Egypt
housed the greatest library in the ancient world
Greatest Playwright of the Hellenistic world
would not leave Athens
Wrote comedies - master of happy endings, every one lived happily ever after
the cataloger of the library and royal tutor
master of the short, witty epigram
created 800 compositions
was quoted more frequently than any other poet except Homer
influenced Roman poets including Virgil and Ovid
wrote pastoral poems which he developed out of popular shepherd songs
Nike (Winged Victory)
example of Hellenistic sculpture
now in the Louvre in Paris
believed that individual freedom came through renunciation of material things, society and pleasures.
the more one had, the more one would be vulnerable to the whims of fortune.
The goal was to reduce their possessions and pleasures to the absolute minimum
philosopher; established the Cynic traditions
"I would rather go mad than enjoy myself"
Taught taht excessive attachment to the things of theis world was the source of evil and unhappiness
Those who adhered to a Hellenistic Greek philosophy that the world was random colleciton of atoms (atheistic and materialistic), and that one must pursue pleasure, but only in moderation as excess causes pain.
Followers of the Hellenistic Greek philosophy propounded by Zeno, which teaches that orderliness is proper to the universe and that happiness derives from embracing one's divinely ordained role and unhappiness from rejecting it.
his Elements was the fundamental textbook of geometry until the 20th century
made contributions to geometry including the calculation of pi
was famous for his pratical application of engineering, particularly to warfare.
Athenia statesman and the force behind the construction of the structures of the Acropolis, including the Parthenon
Temple dedicated to the Virgin Athena
Timeless work of artistic perfection
The Delian League
League of Greek cities formed to drive out the Persian invaders. Its leaders, Athens, turned it into its own empire.
The Peloponnesian War
Series of wars and rebellions between Athens and Sparta in which cities in each alliance took advantage of the war in order to revolt.
431 - 421 BC & 413 - 404 BC
Gernerals and popular leaders
wealthy aristocrats who had the time for the largely voluntary services performed by the demagogues.
the assembly of all free male Athenian citizens
The non-Athenian residents of athens who comprised about half of the free population of the city. They were active in commerce and banking.