Western Civ

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Western Civ
2012-09-22 20:13:11

Chapter 3
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  1. Heraclitus
    • Philosopher
    • search for personal, inner understanding (ethics based on reason
  2. Thucydides
    • Athenian General
    • Wrote a history of the Peloponnesian War focusing on the Greek world.
    • Wrote an actual account of the war not a history
  3. Herodotus
    • The first historian
    • Wrote "inquiries" (in Greek, historia) about the Persian War
    • Wrote about  the memories of the people of the war from both sides
  4. Sophists
    Professional reachers in fifth-century Greece who traveled from city to city instructing students, for a fe, in rhetoric, the art of persuasion
  5. Aeschylus
    • Athenian dramatist (525-456 BC)
    • Oresteia, trilogy 
    • Traced the fate of the family of Agamemnon
  6. Sophocles
    • Athenian dramatist (496-406 BC)
    • wrote tragedies to express human character, make free choices
    • Antigone 
  7. Euripides
    • Athenian dramatict (485-406 BC)
    • Plays abound in plots and twists and unexpected violence
    • Medea 
  8. Phidias
    • Atheninan sculptor (500-430 BC)
    • sculptures sought a naturalism in the portrayal of the human figure
    • made a bronze statue of Athena Promachos that was in the center of the acropolis
  9. Socrates
    • Considered by many to be a Sophists
    • Refused payment for his teaching
    • "Know thyself"
    • Searched for the moral self-enlightenment urged by Heraclitus
    • Condemned to death for "corrupting the morals of the Athenian youth"
  10. Aristophanes
    • Athenian comic genius (450-388 BC)
    • mocks and ridicules sttesment, philosophers, and even gods
    • wrote Lysistrata
  11. Lysistrata
    • Greek comedy
    • Greek women force the men to make peace by refusing to have sex
  12. Antigone
  13. Acropolis
    • high citadel
    • high-fortified site
    • Athenian acropolis was the greates complex of building in the ancient world
  14. Ionic
    Architectural style distinguished by the simple but fulid patterns of flowers and scrolls on its capitals, patterns borrowed from Oriental architecture.
  15. Doric
    every surface curves slightly
  16. Corinthian
  17. Thebes
    • Defeated the Spartan's in 371, when Sparta attacked
    • The next year they invaded the Peloponnesus and freed Messenia.
    • Lost their power when they tried to invade Phocis in 355 BC
  18. Plato
    • Student of Socrates
    • used dialogue to teach, believed in Forms
    • believed the evils of the world result form ignorance of the truth
    • believed a philospher's task was to break the chains and turn the people toward the source of the light so that they could see the world as it really was
    • "Truth would make them free"
  19. Aristotle
    • Plato's student
    • was in favor of a philosophy rooted in the natural world
    • Systematic investigation and explanation
    • most famous student was Alexander, the son of King Philip of Macedon
  20. Empiricism
    The philosophy propounded by Aristotle which rejected Play's idea of abstract Forms in favor of practical obervation and explanation, building general theories from particular data.
  21. Macedonia
    • moved into the power vacuum left by Athens and Sparta after they destroyed each other
    • King Philip II was the ruler at the time 359-336 BC
  22. Philip II
    • King of Medonia
    • political acumen and military skill
    • took over one Greek city-state after another
    • then was going to attack Persia but was assassinated at age of 46
  23. Alexander the Great
    • son of Philip II, became King after Philip was assassinated
    • within 13 years Alexander had conquered the world
    • was affected by poet Homer more than his teacher Aristotle
    • his hero was the hero of Iliad.  
    • Military genius and was able to motivate and move troops over great distances
    • Known as the greates conquerer of all time
  24. The League of Corinth
    • empire formed by Philip II, who ruled as a monarchy
    • supported by wealthy citizens who the king rewarded
  25. Ptolemy I
    • Ruled Egypt after the death of Alexander.
    • Was one of Alexander's closest followers
  26. Alexandria
    • the most vibrant center of the complex social change and culture
    • political and commerce city of Egypt
    • housed the greatest library in the ancient world
  27. Menander
    • Greatest Playwright of the Hellenistic world
    • would not leave Athens
    • Wrote comedies - master of happy endings, every one lived happily ever after
  28. Callimachus
    • 305-240 BC
    • the cataloger of the library and royal tutor
    • master of the short, witty epigram
    • created 800 compositions
    • was quoted more frequently than any other poet except Homer
    • influenced Roman poets including Virgil and Ovid
  29. Theocritus
    • 310-250 BC
    • wrote pastoral poems which he developed out of popular shepherd songs
  30. Nike (Winged Victory)
    • example of Hellenistic sculpture
    • now in the Louvre in Paris
  31. Cynics
    • believed that individual freedom came through renunciation of material things, society and pleasures.  
    • the more one had, the more one would be vulnerable to the whims of fortune.
    • The goal was to reduce their possessions and pleasures to the absolute minimum
  32. Antisthenes
    • philosopher; established the Cynic traditions
    • "I would rather go mad than enjoy myself"
    • Taught taht excessive attachment to the things of theis world was the source of evil and unhappiness
  33. Epicureans
    Those who adhered to a Hellenistic Greek philosophy that the world was  random colleciton of atoms (atheistic and materialistic), and that one must pursue pleasure, but only in moderation as excess causes pain.
  34. Stoics
    Followers of the Hellenistic Greek philosophy propounded by Zeno, which teaches that orderliness is proper to the universe and that happiness derives from embracing one's divinely ordained role and unhappiness from rejecting it.
  35. Euclid
    • Mathmetician
    • his Elements was the fundamental textbook of geometry until the 20th century
  36. Archimedes
    • made contributions to geometry including the calculation of pi 
    • was famous for his pratical application of engineering, particularly to warfare.
    • marvelous machines
  37. Pericles
    Athenia statesman and the force behind the construction of the structures of the Acropolis, including the Parthenon
  38. Parthenon
    • Temple dedicated to the Virgin Athena
    • Timeless work of artistic perfection
    • Doric columns
  39. Darius I
  40. Marathon
  41. Miltiades 
  42. Ostracism 
  43. Themistocles 
  44. Xerxes
  45. Leonidas 
  46. Alcibiades 
  47. Thermopylae
  48. The Delian League
    League of Greek cities formed to drive out the Persian invaders.  Its leaders, Athens, turned it into its own empire.
  49. The Peloponnesian War
    • Series of wars and rebellions between Athens and Sparta in which cities in each alliance took advantage of the war in order to revolt.
    • 431 - 421 BC & 413 - 404 BC
  50. Demagogues
    • Gernerals and popular leaders
    • wealthy aristocrats who had the time for the largely voluntary services performed by the demagogues.
  51. Ekklesia
    the assembly of all free male Athenian citizens
  52. Metics
    The non-Athenian residents of athens who comprised about half of the free population of the city.  They were active in commerce and banking.