Amer Gov Civil Liberties and rights
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legal and constitutional rights that protect individuals from arbitrary acts of government. Civil liberties include freedom of speech and garantees of a fair trial.
Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government official s or individuals. Civil rights include laws prohibiting racial and gender discrimination
the case-by-case process by which liberites listed in the Bill of Rights have been applied to the states using the Due Process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.
A provision of the First Amendment that prohibits Congresss from establishing an official government-sponsored religon
Free exercise clause
a provision fo the First Amendment that garantees each person the right to believe what he or she wants. However, a religion cannot make an act legal that would othersie be illegal.
Clear and Present danger test
Judicial interpretationof the First Amendment that governmetn may not ban speech unless it poses an imminent threat to society.
Writ of Habeas corpus
A court order directin that a prisoner be brought before a court and that the court officers show cause why the prisoner should not be released.
Bill of Attainder
A legislative act that provides for the punishment of a person without a court trial.
Expost Facto Law
a law applied to an act committed before the law was enacted.
Supreme court guideline that prohibits evidence obtained by illegal serches or seizurs form being admitted in court.
Warnings that police must read to suspects prior to questioning that advises them of their rights
Supreme court rule that classification by race and ethnic background is inherently suspect and mustbe justified by a "compelling public interest"
A policy requiring federal agencies, universites and most employers to take positive steps to remedy the effects of past discrimination
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