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day 6: chemical signaling
what causes the vesicles to move to the presynaptic membrane?
influx of Ca2+
what does block calciums lead to?
less NT fired
What happens when experimentaly lowering the concentrations of Ca2 around the terminal?
reduces amount of NT released
Who discovered NT?
WHta was Loewi discovery name?
In what form do vesiscle release NT?
proteins in the membrane of post-synaptic cell that NT molecules bind to them
Receptors will only...
bind to specific NTs
3 types of receptors
overview of autoreceptors
-they are positioned on the pre-synapic cleft
- when NT is released from Presynaptic, it binds to its autoreceptor cauing inhibation or stimulation of additional release
overview of Ionotropic receptors
-when NT binds to these receptors, channel opens
-can quickly depolarize or hyperpolarize the resting membrane
-more prevalent than iontropic
-when NT bind to them cascade of intracellular events occur.
*G-protein that is attached to it, is relased and acts on other elements
2 ways of stopping neurotransmission
-reuptake and enzymatic degradation
process is very rapid, once released, the NT are transported back into the pre-synaptic cell
enzymes can interact with certain NTs. When they do, enzymes destroy NTs form from preventing them from going to a receptor.
proteins that either stimulate or inhibit biochemical reactions without being effected by them
- broken down bits of NTs
-can be taken back into the pre-synaptic membrane for synthesis .
four types of small NTs
*these NTs are fashioned out of molecules from our diet
Amino acids- Glutamate
most prevalent excitatory NT in the mamalian central nervous system
Amino Acids- GABA
most prevalent inhibitory NT in the mamalian central nervous system
where do amino acids come from?
from foods that we eat
Nt- small molecules- Monoamines
-made from just one single amino acid
-less targeted than amino acid transmitters, they are relased more diffusely throughout the brain
Nt- small molecules- types of Monoamines
* all 3 synthesized from Tyrosine
* synthesized from trytophan= lot of tryptophan in trukey
Nt- small molecules- 2 types of Soluble gases
-nitric oxide and carbon monoxide
Nt- small molecules- SOluble gases
-they are produced in cytoplam then diffused out of cell
- they enter post-synaptic cell and trigger second messenger cascades
Nt- small molecules- Axetylcholine
it is a NT released by neurons on to muscles
NT- Large peptides
-far too many to list
-plays role in lots of aspects of behavior such as feeding, drinking, and sex
mimic effects of an endogenous NT by binding to its receptor and causing the same response
blocks the effects of an endogenous NT by binding to its receptor and preventing any NT from binding
what NT does Benzines mimic?