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When a cell's mechanisms fail and the cell is under stress, the cellular structure becomes clear and pathologic or disease states ensues
The branch of medicine devoted to the study and understanding of the disease. It also seeks to understand the effects of the disease on the function of the human organism at all levels and relate to functional alterations to changes perceived at the gross anatomic, cellular and subcellular levels.
What 2 categories can changes in cellular structure be categorized?
Irreversible and reversible
What are the functions of the cell?
- Nutrition, mobility, communications, reproduction, and protection.
- I remeber it as no more crap but without the a in crap
What accounts for redness and warmth?
The vascular dilation permits an increase in blood flow to tissue during inflammation.
Can reversible and irreversible occur in malignant and normal cells?
Represents when cellular processes assoc with life proceed normally in accordance with the normal function of the cell.
Monitoring of and response to tissue damage is called
Dead cells are recognized by
- Enzymatic activity from either the cell itself or macrophages
- Nucleus becomes fragmented, and
- alterations from staining.
Define irreversible changes
Cellular death or changes that prove to be lethal to the cell
What is the hallmark sign of reversible damage?
Define reversible changes
These are consistent with cell survival if the precipitation cause is corrected.
Define inflammatory response
Complex immunochemical reaction initiated by normal cells that have been injured.
What are the cardinal features of inflammation
Redness, heat, pain, and swelling.
Cells differ greatly in their functions but they do have characteristics in common. What are they?
All cells share the ability to produce energy and maintain homeostasis by elaborating on a vast array of proteins and making it easier to adapt to physiologic (normal functions) or pathologic (changes) stress.
How does inflammation begin?
It begins as local vascular dilation that permits an increase in blood flow to the tissue. This accounts for redness and warmth. There are changes in permeability and intravascular pressure of the vascular membrane that accounts for swelling within the intersitial space. Many proteins and white blood cells escape (exit out) with the fluid to destroy bacteria, neutralize toxins, destroy dead and dying tissue. Eventually new capillaries facilitate tissue repair.
What accounts for swelling?
Changes in permeability and intravascular pressure of the vascular membrane that accounts for swelling within the intersitial space.
What are the common agents that cause tissue damage and lead to an inflammatory response?
Hypoxia, microbial infections, ionizing radiation, chemicals, allergic or immune reactions, and cancer
- I remember this as
- how many ice cubes are in coke.
What is the most common cause of tissue damage?
What does oxygen deprivation do?
Renders a living cell incapeable of manufacturing energy, which causes the intracellular organs to fail, loss of the integrity of the cell membrane which will result in cell death. This could be from local hypoxia resulting from vascular occlusion like in acute myocardial infarctions.
What is extravasation?
Leakage of intravenous drugs into the tissue surrounding the venipuncture.
What is the 2nd leading cause of death in the US?
An abnormal process resulting in the formation of a neoplasm or tumor.
Carcinomas arrise in which tissue?
Epithelial cells which cover most external surfaces, line most cavities and form the glands. Epithelial cells are protective, absorptive, or secratory.
Sarcomas arrise in which tissue?
Well Differentiated cells tend to grow more _____ than undifferntiated cells.
Distant spread or metastisis of the the cancer results from malignant cells gaining access to ....
the blood and lymphatic channels
The cells metastic potential is influenced by the biochemical interaction between _____ and _____ produced by the tumor cells and the cells popluating sites of potential colonization.
proteins and polypeptides
Carcinomas tend to invade the________ more often then _______; therefore, metastases are commonly found in ____ _____.
- lymphatic channels
- blood vessels,
- lymph nodes
Sarcomas tend to metastasize via ____ _____ ____ and is why more frequent appearance of metastatic sarcoma in the lungs.
Blood vessel invasion
Cells that exhibit no differntiation are called
Anaplastic or undifferntiated
Define Chemical Carcinogenesis
Mutagens that cause unusual changes in DNA of cells they attack.
What was Percivall Pott and Yamagiwa and Ichikawa in Japan noted for
In the 18th century England, Percivall figured out the assocaition of scrotom cancer and work done by chimeny sweeps. In the 20th century this assocation between cancer and products of hydrocarbon combustion was confirmed in Japan by Yamagiwa and Ichikawa who were able to induce cancers in the skin of labatory animals by the chronic application of coal tar.
Mutations are not always carcinogenic
What is the latent period and how long does it last?
The time between the initiating event and clinical appearnace of the tumor which can be years or decades.
What is an initiator?
The chemical compound provoking a mutation that produce strategic damage sufficient to have potential neoplastic (abnormal growth) consequences.
What is the group of chemicals that are seldom carcinogens but have the effect of hastening and intensifying abnormal growth characteristics set in motion by the initiator and as a result, cell division accelerates beyond that normally seen under the influence of the initiator alone to produce clone of cells displaying increased metabolic activity and early abnormal growth characteristics?
Define a Genome
A complete set of genetic material in an organism.
Define Viral oncogenes
Genes of viral derivation that have become incorporated into chromosomes of the host cell and are concerned with the regulation of cell growth.
What are the 4 common viruses widely distributed in nature and implicated in human neoplasia?
- EBV- Epstein-Barr Virus
- HPV- Human Papillomavirus
- HBV- Hepatitis B
- HTLV-1- Human T-cell leukemia type I virus
Epstein Barr Virus causes acute infectious mononucleosis. This one loves lymphocytes.
Human papillomavirus is found everywhere among higher vertebrates. These are associated with a variety of neoplasms ranging from warts to invasive cancer of the uterine cervix.
Hepatitis B is chronic hepatitis or liver inflammation and is a major cause of mortality in Africa and Asia.
Human T cell leukemia type I virus is endemic in Japan, Africa, and the West Indies and is an example of a RNA retro virus that plays a casual role in the development of human malignancy. .
Ionizing radiation is a
Ioinizing radiation was given to radiation workers and the atomic bomb survivors. The radiation workers were given little doses over a long period of time and develped cancers of the hematologic origin like leukemia and lymphoma. The atomic bomb survivors were given a single large dose and received the hematologic malignancies but also induced solid tumors of the thyroid , breast, colon, and lung. And all of these cancers manifested after latent periods ranging from a few years to several decades.
The long latent periods from the radiation workers and the atomic bomb survivors suggests what?
That many cofactors are working in radiation carcinogenesis.
What are the 3 procedures most used to make a diagnosis of cancer?
- Exfoliative cytology
- Fine needle aspiration
- Open Biopsy
What is Exfoliative Cytology
The study of single cells obtained from various surfaces or secretions shed by the tumor. Like the Pap Smear
What is fine needle aspiration
Retrieving cells through a fine needle inserted directly into the tumor.
What is an open biopsy
This is the most invasive of the 3 and is a surgical removal of the tumor totally or partly.
Tumor grade is
A specification that describes the aggressiveness of the cancer as determined by cytologic and morphologic criteria.
Tumor stage is
- It defines tumor size and extension of the diagnosis.
- T1-T4 is tumor size
- N0-N4 is nodal spread
- M0-M4 is sites of metastatic spread
Who standardizes the staging system TNM?
AJCC American Joint Committee for Cancer
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