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2012-09-22 16:25:46
Chemistry Tests Study

Review over the first unit of Pre-AP Chemistry.
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  1. Substance -or- Pure Substance
    Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition.
  2. Physical Properties
    • Can be observed without changing composition. 
    • Ex: Density, color, odor, taste, hardness, melting point, boiling point, malleability, ductility.
  3. Extensive
    A physical property that is dependent on the amount of matter (mass, weight). Also known as quantitative. 
  4. Intensive
    A physical property that is not dependent on the amount of matter (taste, etc).
  5. Chemical Property
    • Require a chemical reaction on order to be observed.
    • Ability or inability to change into one or more other substances.
  6. STP
    Standard Temperature and Pressure
  7. 4 States of Matter:
    • Solid
    • Liquid
    • Gas
    • Plasma
    • All matter can exist in the first three states if conditions allow.
  8. Solid
    • Definite shape and volume.
    • Incompressible.
  9. Liquid
    • Flows.
    • Constant volume.
    • Takes the shape of the container.
    • Particles slide over one another.
    • Incompressible.
  10. Gas
    • Expands to fill entire container.
    • Particles are far apart and always moving.
    • Easily compressible.
    • NOT the same as vapor.
  11. Physical Change
    A change in appearance, etc, but not in compostion.
  12. Chemical Change
    • Involves one or more substances changing into new substances.
    • Starting substances are called the reactants, resulting substances are called the products.
  13. Indications of a chemical change:
    Color change, gas production (bubbles, odor), energy changes.
  14. Exothermic
    Release of heat.
  15. Endothermic
    Absorption of heat.
  16. Law of Conservation of Mass
    • Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
    • Mass reactants = mass products.
  17. Element
    • Consists of only one kind of atom.
    • Cannot be broken down by chemical OR physical means.
    • Can exist as either atoms or molecules.
  18. Compound
    • Consists of two or more elements bound together.
    • Can be broken down by chemical means, but not physical means.
  19. Mixture
    • Consists of two or more elements a/o compounds physically combined.
    • Can be separated by physical means.
  20. Heterogeneous
    • Large particles.
    • Does not blend smoothly throughout.
    • Substances remain distinguishable.
    • Ex: Colloids, suspensions.
  21. Homogeneous
    • Small particles.
    • Constant composition throughout.
    • Also called solutions.
    • Can be solid, liquid, or gas.
  22. Mixtures can be separated by _________ means.
    Mixtures can be separated by physical means.
  23. Filtration
    • A technique that uses a pourous barrier to separate suspensions.
    • Ex: Mud from water.
  24. Distillation
    Mixture is heated until the substance with the lowest boiling point boils to a vapor that can be condensed.
  25. Crystallization
    Formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a saturated solution containing a dissolved substance.
  26. Chromatography
    Separates components based on the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material.
  27. Accuracy
    Refers to how close a measurement is to an accepted value.
  28. Precision
    Refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another.
  29. Atom
    Smallest part of an element that retains the property of that element.
  30. Molecules
    • Smallest particle of a covalent compound that retains properties of that compound. 
    • Made of 2 or more atoms.
  31. Ions
    Individual charged particles in an ionic compound.
  32. Formula Units
    Smallest ratio of ions in an ionic compound. 
  33. Mole
    • A specific amount of a substance.
    • Tangible amount.
    • Avogadro's Number: 6.02 x 1023
  34. Molar Mass
    • Mass of one mole of a substance in grams.
    • Can be obtained or calculated from the periodic table.