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Substance -or- Pure Substance
Matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition.
- Can be observed without changing composition.
- Ex: Density, color, odor, taste, hardness, melting point, boiling point, malleability, ductility.
A physical property that is dependent on the amount of matter (mass, weight). Also known as quantitative.
A physical property that is not dependent on the amount of matter (taste, etc).
- Require a chemical reaction on order to be observed.
- Ability or inability to change into one or more other substances.
Standard Temperature and Pressure
4 States of Matter:
- All matter can exist in the first three states if conditions allow.
- Definite shape and volume.
- Constant volume.
- Takes the shape of the container.
- Particles slide over one another.
- Expands to fill entire container.
- Particles are far apart and always moving.
- Easily compressible.
- NOT the same as vapor.
A change in appearance, etc, but not in compostion.
- Involves one or more substances changing into new substances.
- Starting substances are called the reactants, resulting substances are called the products.
Indications of a chemical change:
Color change, gas production (bubbles, odor), energy changes.
Release of heat.
Absorption of heat.
Law of Conservation of Mass
- Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
- Mass reactants = mass products.
- Consists of only one kind of atom.
- Cannot be broken down by chemical OR physical means.
- Can exist as either atoms or molecules.
- Consists of two or more elements bound together.
- Can be broken down by chemical means, but not physical means.
- Consists of two or more elements a/o compounds physically combined.
- Can be separated by physical means.
- Large particles.
- Does not blend smoothly throughout.
- Substances remain distinguishable.
- Ex: Colloids, suspensions.
- Small particles.
- Constant composition throughout.
- Also called solutions.
- Can be solid, liquid, or gas.
Mixtures can be separated by _________ means.
Mixtures can be separated by physical means.
- A technique that uses a pourous barrier to separate suspensions.
- Ex: Mud from water.
Mixture is heated until the substance with the lowest boiling point boils to a vapor that can be condensed.
Formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a saturated solution containing a dissolved substance.
Separates components based on the tendency of each to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material.
Refers to how close a measurement is to an accepted value.
Refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another.
Smallest part of an element that retains the property of that element.
- Smallest particle of a covalent compound that retains properties of that compound.
- Made of 2 or more atoms.
Individual charged particles in an ionic compound.
Smallest ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
- A specific amount of a substance.
- Tangible amount.
- Avogadro's Number: 6.02 x 1023
- Mass of one mole of a substance in grams.
- Can be obtained or calculated from the periodic table.