Test 09/24/12 Detection and Diagnosis
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Test 09/24/12 Detection and Diagnosis
Test 09 24 12 nChapter Detection Diagnosis
Test 09/24/12 Detection and Diag Chapter 5
What are the 2 most imporant and effective strategies of saving lives?
Prevention and early screening.
an objective finding as perceived by the EXAMINER
subjective indication of a disease or a change in condition as perceived by the PATIENT.
set of signs or symptoms arising from common cause.
identification of a disease or condition
When the patient first sees the doc what happens?
The Interview which is the most powerful diagnostic tool of the physician.
What is the most powerful tool of the physician?
What happens during an interview?
The doc learns the chronological events and symtoms of patient
Doc determines patient's chief complaints and current status
Doc establishes the physician patient relationship
Verbal and nonverbal cues are assessed. (what the patient says or doesnt say)
Who do the medical records technically belong to?
The hospital NOT the patient.
How can a patient obtain medical records?
by subpoena to a court of law
the use of sight to observe like color of skin, lesions, asymmetry on the surface of skin.
use of touch to acquire info. like feeling the axiallry lymphnodes
act of striking or tapping patient gently. Like looking for kidney infections or where the lungs and abdomen begin.
act of listening to sounds in the body. LIke using the stethoscope to listen to the heart or lungs, etc.
Define Vital Signs
temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respirations
regularity of breathing. see if patient is slow or rapid breathing.
What are the 4 things important when testing?
Probability of the disease in the entire poplulation at one time.
probability that a patient without disease develops the disease during an interval
1 in 8 women develops breat cancer and 1 in 8 men develops prostate cancer.
Probability of a positive test among patients with disease.
Probability of a negative test among patients without disease.
Yearly mammograms start at age
Clinical breast exams start
every 3 years for 20-30 year olds and
every year for 40 and up
Self breast exams should start at age
When is screening with an MRI recommended?
when a woman has a strong family history.
Beginning at age 50 men and women should have 1 of the following done
FOBT or FIT every year
What is FOBT
fecal occult blood test
What is FIT
fecal immunochemical test
What age should men and women have a FSIG every 5 years
What is FSIG
What age should men and women have annual FOBT, FIT, and a FSIG every 5 years
What age should men and women have a double contrast BE every 5 years
At what age should men and women have a colonoscopy every 10 years?
Starting at age 50 men should have what test done annually by a physician?
PSA test and DRE
What is a PSA
a blood test for the prostate. Prostate Specific Antigen
What is DRE
digital rectal exam
Who should start having the PSA and DRE at age 45?
African American men or men with a strong family history.
What screening should begin 3 years after a women begins vaginal intercourse but no later than 21?
Cervial screening should be done annually until age 30 and then can be dropped to every 2-3 years if multiple negative tests have resulted.
After menopause there should be no vaginal bleeding, if there is a women needs to report right away because it could be
What is Nuclear Imaging
This is like a stress test or a PET scan. The patient is injected with a radioactive material.
What is a CT scan
Computed Tomography is where the patient is put through a doughnut type tube and a camera goes 360 around them taking pictures. These are great for bone or a mass in the lungs.
What is a MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging and is magnetic so it has no radiation and is better for the brains scans or tissue scans
What is an ultrasound
This gives off no radiation and just works off waves. This is one we do not use too much