Card Set Information
ethics test 1
The aspects of our lives that deal with moral judgments, principles, rules, standards or theories.
Study of morality using the tools and methods of philosophy
Ethics (moral philosophy)
The study of morality using the methodology of science.
The search for, and justification of, moral standards and norms
Study of the meaning and justification of basic moral beliefs
Use of moral norms and concepts to resolve practical moral issues
Applied ethics focused on health care, medical science, and medical technology.
Moral norms take precedence over other norms
Moral standards apply to all relevantly similar situations
Everyone’s moral standing should be equal
Moral actions must be the result of careful reflections and sound reasoning
Principal that applies without exception. Don’t lie regardless of the circumstances.
Applies in all cases unless an exception is warranted. Telling a patient the truth will kill them.
Prima facie principal
A person's rational capacity for self-governance or self determination - the ability to direct one's own life and choose for oneself
The overriding of a person's actions or decision-making for her own good.
We should do good to others and avoid doing them harm. "Do good to others"
We should not cause unnecessary injury or harm to those in our care. "Do no harm"
We should produce the most favorable balance of good over bad (or benefit over harm) for all concerned
People getting what is fair or what is their due.
Claim there are moral norms or principles that are valid or true for everyone
The belief that ovjective moral principles allow no exceptions or must be applied the same way in all cases and cultures
View of moral standards are not objective but are relative to what individuals or cultures believe
ethical relativism pertaining to individuals
ethical relativism pertaining to cultures
The view of morality that moral laws are constiityted by the will of God
divine command theory
Arguments that provide logically conclusive support to conclusions
arguments that provide probable support for conclusions
A group of statements in which soe of them are intended to support another of them
a statment given in support of another statement
a statement that premises are used to support
a claim, an assertion that something is or is not the case
A statement that doesn't give any reason to accept the change, just influence their opinion
If p, then q
affirming the antecedent
if p, then q
therefore not p
denying the consequent
name 5 fallacies in moral reasoning
appeal to the person
appeal to ignorance
begging the question
the theory that the right actions are the ones that result in the most beneficial balance of good over bad consequences for everyone involved
an act is right if in a particular situation it produces a greater balance of good over bad than any alternative acts
a right action is one that conforms to a rule and if followed will create for everyone involved the most beneficial balance of good over bad
Doing a good act and getting a bad outcome is ok
Doing a bad act and getting a good outcome is not ok
natural law theory
The view that right actions are those that conform to moral standards discerned in nature through human reason
natural law theory
theory that every decision should be made behind the veil of ignorance
Rawls's contract theory
ethics that where character is the key to moral life, because it is froma a virtuous character that moral conduct and values naturally arise
ethics approach to morality aimed at advancing women's interests and correcting unjustices inflicted on women through social oppresion and inequality
3 criteria for judging moral theories
1) consistency with our considered moral judgments
2) consistency with the fats of the moral life
3) resourcefulness in moral problem solving
paternalism directed at persons who can't act autonomously or whose autonomy is greatly diminished
the overriding of a person's actions or choices even though he is substantially autonomous
the alleged pointlessness or ineffectiveness of administeing particular treatments
Telling the truth
4 external constraints on autonomy
The duty to keep commitments and promises
allocating resources in a fair manner