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2012-09-24 19:07:35

ethics test 1
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  1. The aspects of our lives that deal with moral judgments, principles, rules, standards or theories.
  2. Study of morality using the tools and methods of philosophy
    Ethics (moral philosophy)
  3. The study of morality using the methodology of science.
    Descriptive ethics
  4. The search for, and justification of, moral standards and norms
    Normative ethics
  5. Study of the meaning and justification of basic moral beliefs
  6. Use of moral norms and concepts to resolve practical  moral issues
    Applied ethics
  7. Applied ethics focused on health care, medical science, and medical technology.
  8.  Moral norms take precedence over other norms
    Normative Dominance
  9. Moral standards apply to all relevantly similar situations
  10. Everyone’s moral standing should be equal
  11. Moral actions must be the result of careful reflections and sound reasoning
  12. Principal that applies without exception. Don’t lie regardless of the circumstances.
    Absolute principal
  13. Applies in all cases unless an exception is warranted. Telling a patient the truth will kill them.
    Prima facie principal
  14. A person's rational capacity for self-governance or self determination - the ability to direct one's own life and choose for oneself
  15. The overriding of a person's actions or decision-making for her own good.
  16. We should do good to others and avoid doing them harm. "Do good to others"
  17. We should not cause unnecessary injury or harm to those in our care. "Do no harm"
  18. We should produce the most favorable balance of good over bad (or benefit over harm) for all concerned
  19. People getting what is fair or what is their due.
  20. Claim there are moral norms or principles that are valid or true for everyone
    Moral objectivism
  21. The belief that ovjective moral principles allow no exceptions or must be applied the same way in all cases and cultures
    Moral absolutism
  22. View of moral standards are not objective but are relative to what individuals or cultures believe
    ethical relativism
  23. ethical relativism pertaining to individuals
    subjective relativism
  24. ethical relativism pertaining to cultures
    cultural relativism
  25. The view of morality that moral laws are constiityted by the will of God
    divine command theory
  26. Arguments that provide logically conclusive support to conclusions
  27. arguments that provide probable support for conclusions
  28. A group of statements in which soe of them are intended to support another of them
  29. a statment given in support of another statement
  30. a statement that premises are used to support
  31. a claim, an assertion that something is or is not the case
  32. A statement that doesn't give any reason to accept the change, just influence their opinion
  33. If p, then q
    therefore q
    affirming the antecedent
  34. if p, then q
    not q
    therefore not p
    denying the consequent
  35. name 5 fallacies in moral reasoning
    • straw man
    • appeal to the person
    • appeal to ignorance
    • begging the question
    • slippery slope
  36. the theory that the right actions are the ones that result in the most beneficial balance of good over bad consequences for everyone involved
  37. an act is right if in a particular situation it produces a greater balance of good over bad than any alternative acts
    act utilitarianism
  38. a right action is one that conforms to a rule and if followed will create for everyone involved the most beneficial balance of good over bad
  39. Doing a good act and getting a bad outcome is ok
    Doing a bad act and getting a good outcome is not ok
    natural law theory
  40. The view that right actions are those that conform to moral standards discerned in nature through human reason
    natural law theory
  41. theory that every decision should be made behind the veil of ignorance
    Rawls's contract theory
  42. ethics that where character is the key to moral life, because it is froma a virtuous character that moral conduct and values naturally arise
    virtue ethics
  43. ethics approach to morality aimed at advancing women's interests and correcting unjustices inflicted on women through social oppresion and inequality
  44. 3 criteria for judging moral theories
    • 1) consistency with our considered moral judgments
    • 2) consistency with the fats of the moral life
    • 3) resourcefulness in moral problem solving
  45. paternalism directed at persons who can't act autonomously or whose autonomy is greatly diminished
    weak paternalism
  46. the overriding of a person's actions or choices even though he is substantially autonomous
    strong paternalism
  47. the alleged pointlessness or ineffectiveness of administeing particular treatments
    medical futility
  48. Telling the truth
  49. 4 external constraints on autonomy
    • school
    • government
    • military
    • jail
  50. The duty to keep commitments and promises
  51. allocating resources in a fair manner