Pharmacology exam 1
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Pharmacology exam 1
ffloyd pharmacology exam pcol ans sns pns
Pharmacology exam 1
The ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic fibers in the SNS is ______
1 : 20
In the SNS, postganglionic fibers are ______ and usually release _________
long ; norepi
In the PNS, preganglionic fibers are ________ and postganglionic fibers are _______
long ; short
In the PNS, the neurotransmitter released at the ganglia is _____ and the neurotransmitter released at the effector organ is _____
ACh ; ACh
The ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic fibers in the PNS is _____
1 : 1
In the SNS, the neurotransmitter released at the ganglia is _____
What are the 3 principal functions of the ANS?
-regulate the heart
-regulate secretory glands
-regulate smooth muscle
How does the PNS regulate the heart?
How does the PNS regulate gastic secretions?
How does the PNS regulate the bladder?
How does the PNS regulate the eye?
BOTH miosis and accommodation
How does the PNS regulate the bowel?
How does the PNS regulate the lungs?
What are the 3 main functions of the SNS?
-regulate CV system
-regulate body temp
-implement "fight-or-flight" reactions
How does the SNS regulate the heart?
increases heart rate and BP
How does the SNS regulate the lungs?
dilates the bronchi
How does the SNS regulate the eye?
During synaptic transmission, what are the 3 possible outcomes of receptor binding?
During synaptic transmission, in what 2 ways can the termination of transmission happen?
In the synapse during transmission, what is the final outcome of ACh and NE?
ACh is broken down by acetylcholinesterase into choline which is recycled back into ACh
NE can be reuptaken and reused or can go on to be broken down by COMT
What kind of receptors do skeletal muscles have?
What kind of receptors do sweat glands have?
What kind of neurotransmitter does the preganglionic neuron of the PNS use?
What kind of neurotransmitter does the preganglionic neuron of the SNS use?
What kind of neurotransmitter does the postganglionic neuron of the PNS use?
What kind of neurotransmitter does the postganglionic neuron of the SNS use?
***UNLESS the effector organ is SWEAT GLANDS, then its ACh***
What neurotransmitter does the adrenal medulla excrete?
What type of receptors are in the ganglia of the PNS?
What kinds of receptors are in the ganglia of the SNS?
What is another name for a parasympathetic agent?
What is another name for a sympathetic agent?
A parasypathetic agonist could be called what other 3 terms?
A sympathetic antagonist could be called by what other 3 terms?
A parasympathetic antagonist could be called by what other 3 terms?
A sympathetic agonist could be called by what other 3 terms?
The term "cholinergic" refers to what?
Nicotinic receptor respond to _________ and are _____________________
ACh ; ligand-gated ion channels
When ACh activates a nicotinic receptor, what happens?
ligand-gated Na + abd K+ ion channels open and causes depolarization
What happens when ACh activates a muscarinic receptor?
*G-proteins activate leading to an incr. in IP3 and DAG
*a decr. in adenyl cyclase activity
Muscarinic receptors respond to _______ and are ______________________
ACh ; coupled to G-proteins
What are the 3 types of cholinergic receptors?
-nicotinic neuronal receptors
-nicotinic muscle receptors
Physostigmine is a ______________ agent
cholinesterase inhibitor (reversible)
What does Botulism toxin do?
prevents the release of ACh
Muscarinic receptors are characterized by selective blockade by drugs like __________
What would a parasympatholytic do to the heart?
In the cardiovascular system, ACh causes ____________ resulting in _______________
vasodilation ; decr. blood pressure
What are the effects of ACh on the heart?
decr. heart rate and force of contractions
What effects does ACh have on the GI tract?
incr. in tone and motility ; relaxation of sphincter (lol, sphincter)
What effects does ACh have on the lungs?
What effects does ACh have on the bladder?
incr. in tone and motility ; sphincter relaxation
How does ACh effect skeletal muscle tissue?
causes depolarization of the neuromuscular juntion and produces skeletal muscle contraction
What is echothiophate?
an organophosphate (aka irreversible cholinesterase inhib.)
What is neostigmine?
a reversible indirect-acting cholinesterase inhibitor
What is methacholine?
a choline ester (like ACh) - metha
What is carbochol?
a choline ester (like ACh) - carbo
What is bethanechol?
a choline ester (like ACh) -bethane
Also, the prototype muscarinic agonist
What is cevimeline used for?
relief of xerostomia and dry eye
What is pilocarpine?
a muscarinic agonist that acts centrally and peripherally b/c it is a tertiary amine
Give 7 possible side effects of parasympathomimetics
1)flushing 2)GI cramps 3)bronchiole constriction 4)sweating 5)incr. saliva/glandular secretions 6)urinary urgency 7)decr. BP
What is pralidoxime (aka 2-PAM)?
used in the treatment of cholinesteraes inhibitor toxicity
What is Myasthenia gravis?
an autoimmune disorder where antibodies work against nicotinic receptors of skeletal muscle