Pharmacology exam 1

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ffloyd
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Pharmacology exam 1
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2012-09-25 18:47:52
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ffloyd pharmacology exam pcol ans sns pns
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Pharmacology exam 1
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  1. The ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic fibers in the SNS is ______
    1 : 20
  2. In the SNS, postganglionic fibers are ______ and usually release _________
    long ; norepi
  3. In the PNS, preganglionic fibers are ________ and postganglionic fibers are _______
    long ; short
  4. In the PNS, the neurotransmitter released at the ganglia is _____ and the neurotransmitter released at the effector organ is  _____
    ACh ; ACh
  5. The ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic fibers in the PNS is _____
    1 : 1
  6. In the SNS, the neurotransmitter released at the ganglia is _____
    ACh
  7. What are the 3 principal functions of the ANS?
    • -regulate the heart
    • -regulate secretory glands
    • -regulate smooth muscle
  8. How does the PNS regulate the heart?
    slows it
  9. How does the PNS regulate gastic secretions?
    increases
  10. How does the PNS regulate the bladder?
    causes emptying
  11. How does the PNS regulate the eye?
    BOTH miosis and accommodation
  12. How does the PNS regulate the bowel?
    causes emptying
  13. How does the PNS regulate the lungs?
    contracts bronchials
  14. What are the 3 main functions of the SNS?
    • -regulate CV system
    • -regulate body temp
    • -implement "fight-or-flight" reactions
  15. How does the SNS regulate the heart?
    increases heart rate and BP
  16. How does the SNS regulate the lungs?
    dilates the bronchi
  17. How does the SNS regulate the eye?
    causes mydriasis
  18. During synaptic transmission, what are the 3 possible outcomes of receptor binding?
    • -cause activation
    • -block activation
    • -enhance activation
  19. During synaptic transmission, in what 2 ways can the termination of transmission happen?
    • -transmitter reuptake
    • -transmitter degradation
  20. In the synapse during transmission, what is the final outcome of ACh and NE?
    ACh is broken down by acetylcholinesterase into choline which is recycled back into ACh

    NE can be reuptaken and reused or can go on to be broken down by COMT
  21. What kind of receptors do skeletal muscles have?
    nicotinic
  22. What kind of receptors do sweat glands have?
    muscarinic
  23. What kind of neurotransmitter does the preganglionic neuron of the PNS use?
    ACh
  24. What kind of neurotransmitter does the preganglionic neuron of the SNS use?
    ACh
  25. What kind of neurotransmitter does the postganglionic neuron of the PNS use?
    ACh
  26. What kind of neurotransmitter does the postganglionic neuron of the SNS use?
    NE

    ***UNLESS the effector organ is SWEAT GLANDS, then its ACh***
  27. What neurotransmitter does the adrenal medulla excrete?
    Epi
  28. What type of receptors are in the ganglia of the PNS?
    nicotinic
  29. What kinds of receptors are in the ganglia of the SNS?
    nicotinic
  30. What is another name for a parasympathetic agent?
    cholinergic
  31. What is another name for a sympathetic agent?
    adrenergic
  32. A parasypathetic agonist could be called what other 3 terms?
    • -parasympathomimetic
    • -cholinergic agonist
    • -muscarinic agonist
  33. A sympathetic antagonist could be called by what other 3 terms?
    • -sympatholytic
    • -adrenergic blocker/antagonist
    • -alpha/beta blocker
  34. A parasympathetic antagonist could be called by what other 3 terms?
    • -parasympatholytic
    • -cholinergic antagonist/blocker
    • -muscarinic blocker
  35. A sympathetic agonist could be called by what other 3 terms?
    • -sympathomimetic
    • -adrenergic agonist
    • -alpha/beta agonist
  36. The term "cholinergic" refers to what?
    the parasympathetic
  37. Nicotinic receptor respond to _________ and are _____________________
    ACh ; ligand-gated ion channels
  38. When ACh activates a nicotinic receptor, what happens?
    ligand-gated Na + abd K+ ion channels open and causes depolarization
  39. What happens when ACh activates a muscarinic receptor?
    • *G-proteins activate leading to an incr. in IP3 and DAG
    • OR
    • *a decr. in adenyl cyclase activity
  40. Muscarinic receptors respond to _______ and are ______________________
    ACh ; coupled to G-proteins
  41. What are the 3 types of cholinergic receptors?
    • -nicotinic neuronal receptors
    • -nicotinic muscle receptors
    • -muscarinic receptors
  42. Physostigmine is a ______________ agent
    cholinesterase inhibitor (reversible)
  43. What does Botulism toxin do?
    prevents the release of ACh
  44. Muscarinic receptors are characterized by selective blockade by drugs like __________
    atropine
  45. What would a parasympatholytic do to the heart? 
    cause tachycardia
  46. In the cardiovascular system, ACh causes ____________ resulting in _______________
    vasodilation ; decr. blood pressure
  47. What are the effects of ACh on the heart?
    decr. heart rate and force of contractions
  48. What effects does ACh have on the GI tract?
    incr. in tone and motility ; relaxation of sphincter (lol, sphincter)
  49. What effects does ACh have on the lungs?
    bronchoconstiction
  50. What effects does ACh have on the bladder?
    incr. in tone and motility ; sphincter relaxation
  51. How does ACh effect skeletal muscle tissue?
    causes depolarization of the neuromuscular juntion and produces skeletal muscle contraction
  52. What is echothiophate?
    an organophosphate (aka irreversible cholinesterase inhib.)
  53. What is neostigmine?
    a reversible indirect-acting cholinesterase inhibitor
  54. What is methacholine?
    a choline ester (like ACh) - methacholine
  55. What is carbochol?
    a choline ester (like ACh) - carbochol
  56. What is bethanechol?
    a choline ester (like ACh) -bethanechol

    Also, the prototype muscarinic agonist
  57. What is cevimeline used for?
    relief of xerostomia and dry eye 
  58. What is pilocarpine?
    a muscarinic agonist that acts centrally and peripherally b/c it is a tertiary amine
  59. Give 7 possible side effects of parasympathomimetics
    1)flushing 2)GI cramps 3)bronchiole constriction 4)sweating 5)incr. saliva/glandular secretions 6)urinary urgency 7)decr. BP
  60. What is pralidoxime (aka 2-PAM)?
    used in the treatment of cholinesteraes inhibitor toxicity
  61. What is Myasthenia gravis?
    an autoimmune disorder where antibodies work against nicotinic receptors of skeletal muscle

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