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Celsius temperatature scale
 measured in degrees C
 a temperature scale on which water has a freezing point of 0 deg C and a boiling point of 100 deg C.

Centimeter (cm)
 a unit of length in the metric system
 there are 2.54 cm in 1 in

Chemical
a substance that has the same composition and properties wherever it is found

Chemistry
the science that studies the composition, structure, properties and reactions of matter

Conversion factor
 a ratio in which the numerator and denominator are quantities from an equality or given relationship
 for example, the conversion factors for the relationship 1kg = 2.20 lbs are written as:
  2.20 lb 1 kg
  and 
 1 kg 2.20 lb

Cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc)
 the volume of a cube that has 1cm sides
 1 cc = 1 ml

Density
 the relationship of the mass of an object to its volume expressed as grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3), grams per milliliter (g/ml) or grams per liter (g/L)
 Density = Mass / Volume or D = M/V

Equality
a relationship between two units that measure the same quantity

Exact number
a number obtained by counting or by definition

Floating and Sinking
 a substance floats in water if its density < that of water
 a substance will sink in water if its density > that of water

Gram (g)
the metric unit used in measurement of mass

International System of Units (SI)
an international system of units that modifies the metric system

Kelvin temperature scale
 measure in K (no degrees)
 a temperature scale on which the lowest possible temperature is 0 K

Kilogram (kg)
 a metric mass of 1000 g
 equal to 2.20 lb
 SI standard unit of mass

Length
the distance from one point to another

Liter (L)
the metric unit for volume that is slightly larger than a quart

Mass
 a measure of the quantity of material in an object
 the amount of matter in an object

Measured number
 a number obtained when a quantity is determined by using a measuring device
 numbers that you have read from an instrument
 always includes one estimated value

Meter (m)
 the metric unit for length that is slightly longer than a yard
 SI standard unit of length

Metric System
a system of measurement used by scientists and in most countries in the world

Milliliter (mL)
 a metric unit of volume equal to onethousandth of a liter
 1 mL = 0.001 L

Prefix
 the part of the name of a metric unit that precedes the base unit and specifies the size of the measurement
 all prefixes are related on a decimal scale:
  Kilo (k) = 1000 or 10**3
  Centi (c) = 1/100 or 0.01 or 10**2
  milli (m) = 1/1000 or 0.001 or 10**3
  micro (u) = 1/1,000,000 or 0.000001 or 10**6

Scientific Notation
a form of writing large and small numbers using a coefficient that is a least 1, but less than 10, followed by a power of 10

Second (s)
 a unit of time
 used in both SI and metric systems

Significant figures (SFs)
the numbers recorded in a measurement

Significant figures rules
 all nonzero digits are always significant (last digit is always estimated)
 zeroes are significant if:
  they fall between numbers
  they fall after numbers and before or after a decimal point
 when multiplying or dividing:
  round off your answer to the same # SFs as the term with the least # of SFs
 when adding or subtracting:
  round off your answer to the same decimal position as the term with the least precision

Specific gravity
SG = density of a substance / density of water (1.00 g/ml at 4 deg C)

Temperature
 an indicator of the hotness or coldness of an object
 the average kinetic energy of a substance

Volume
 the amount of space occupied by a substance
 the amount of space something takes up

