PT 504 E1

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Author:
Jstory
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172621
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PT 504 E1
Updated:
2012-09-23 18:23:07
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Principles Resistance Exercise
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Readings K&C Ch. 6
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  1. Resistance Exercise
    any form of active exercise in which a dynamic or static musculatur contraction is resisted by an outside force
  2. Strength
    Maximum force generated by a muscle 1 RM 
  3. Endurance
    Ability to sustain a force over time
  4. Power
    combines coordination of muscle activation with maximum force to perform a task; can be considered as functional strength 
  5. Composition Of Skeleta Muscle
    Fasciculus (bundle) > Fiber > Myofibrils > Myofilaments (actin & myosin)
  6. Sarcomere
    • 1. Contractile unit: Z line to Z line
    • 2. I Band: isotorpic: actin only
    • 3. A band: anisotropic; filaments overlap
    • 4. Z line: Z-disc
  7. Muscle Fiber Elements
    • 1. Sarcolemma
    • 2. Nucleii
    • 3. Mitochondria
    • 4. T-tubule system & sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • 5. Myofilaments = 80% of the volume
    • 6. Major Filaments: 20% Actin 54% Myosin
  8. Type 1 Fibers
    • 1. Red,
    • 2. slow twitch
    • 3. slow oxidative
  9. Type 2 Fibers
    • 1. White
    • 2. Fast twitch
    • 3. Type 2A fast fatigue resistant
    • 4. Type 2X fast fatigable (2b is in animals) 
  10. Motor Unit Recruitment 
    • 1. Slow Type 1 recruited first w/ most voluntary daily activities
    • 2. Fast Type 2 are actibated when more force is needed, fast corrective movements, reflexes 
  11. Potential Function Of A Muscle:
    Potential Force
    • 1. proportional to the # of active sarcomeres in cross-section
    • 2. Lenght tension relationship
    • 3. Motor unit recruitment- # and frequency
    • 4. max. eccentric contraction force > max. concentric force
    • 5. as speed of exercise increases: concentric force decrease & eccentric force slightly increases
    • 6. motivation of patient 
  12. Potential Function Of A Muscle:
    Potential Velocity
    • 1. proportional to the number of sarcomeres in series; thus longer muscles shorten more quickly than shorter muscles
    • 2. proportion of fast to slow twitch fibers.
  13. Adaptation To Decreased  Use
    • 1. Anti-gravity muscels atrophy more than their antagonists 
    • 2. slow fibers atrophy more than fast fibers
    • 3. muscles immobilized in a shortened position atrophy more than those in neutral or no stretch 
    • 4. proliferation of endomysial and perimysial connective tissues 
  14. Performance Effects Of Resistance Exercise:
    Increased Muscular Strength
    • Strength: Max amount of force a muscle or muscle group can generate in a specific movementat a specific velocity. 
    • 1. to increase strength, muscle contraction must be resisted so that increasing levels of tension are developed. 
    • 2. at least 60% 1RM needed for strength gains
    • 3. sets of 1-15 reps 
  15. Performance Effects Of Resistance Exercise: 
    Increased Muscular Endurance
    • Endurance: ability to perform low intensity repetitive exercise over a porlonged period of time. 
    • 1. to increase mild resistance 20+ reps
    • 2. <15% Max = unlimited endurance 
    • 3. created less joint irritation
    • 4. treatment for postural faults
  16. Performance Effects Of Resistance Exercise: 
    Increased Muscular Power
    • 1. exercises include: multiple joint exercises performed w/ rapid force production. 
    • 2. low load high reps progressed to high loads low reps
  17. Physiological Adaptations To Resistance Exercisses: 
    Muscle Hypertrophy
    • A result of: 
    • 1.  increase in size by adding actin & myosin
    • 2. # of myofibrils and asscociated Sarcoplasm
    • 3. CT increase proportional to increase in muscle mass
    • 4. HYPERPLASIA: is the increase in muscle fibers
    • 5. strength training influence muscle fibers Fast>Slow twitch 
  18. Mechanisms Of Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy From Resistance Exercise: Repair Response
    Forced contraction (eccentric) -> damage (at Z-disc) -> inflammatory response -> digestion of debirs -> growth factors signal sattelite cells -> satellite cells fuse into myotubes -> forming larger cytoskeleton to attach newly synthesized myofibrillar proteins
  19. Mechanisms Of Muscel Fiber Hypertrophy From Resistance Training: Protein Synthesis Exceeds Protein Degradation
    • Hormones regulate muscle metabolism -> stimulate increas (anabolic) or decrease (catabolic)  in protein synthesis. 
    • 1.Affected by Diet, Exercising, aging, & disease. 
    • 2. increased muscle tension increases rate of protein synthesis
    • 3. Anabolic Hormones: testosterone, GH, IGF-1, insulin, estrogen
    • 4. Catabolic Hormones: Glucocorticoids, myostatin
  20. Physical Adaptaions To Resistance Exercise:
    Motor Unit Recruitment (Neural Adaptation)
    • 1. Spatial Summation: more force w/ more # fired
    • 2. Temporal Summation: more force w/ increased rate of firing
    • 3. Gains seen w/o increases muscel mass
    • 4. most improvement in first 3-4 weeks
  21. Physiological Adaptations To Resistance Exercise:
    Metabolic
    1. Increase in muscular glycogen, myoglobin, phosphagens(ATP & CP), capillary volume, total volume & size of mitochondria. 

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