Test 09/24/12 Intro to Rad Chap 3 & 5

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RadTherapy
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Test 09/24/12 Intro to Rad Chap 3 & 5
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2012-09-22 21:46:04
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Test 09 24 12 nIntro Rad Chap
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Test 09/24/12 Intro to Rad Chap 3 & 5
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  1. The branch of medicine devoted to the study and understanding of the disease.
    Pathology
  2. Represents a set of circumstances in which cellular processes associated with life proceed normally and in accordance with the function genetically associated to that cell
    Homeostasis
  3. Nutrition, protection, communication, mobility and reproduction are associated with
    Homeostasis
  4. When cells are under stress, __________ is hard to maintain. Changes in cellular structure become clear and pathological or disease state ensues.
    Homeostasis
  5. Cellular death or changes that prove lethal to the cell
    Irreversible changes
  6. Consistent with cell survival if the precipitating cause is corrected
    Reversible changes
  7. Monitoring of and response to tissue damage, redness, warmth, swelling, and pain
    Inflammation
  8. _______ ________ is a complex, immunochemical reaction initiated by normal cells that have been injured
    Inflammatory reaction
  9. ________ begins as local vascular dilation that permits an increase in blood flow to tissue and accounts for redness and warmth.
    Inflammation
  10. With inflammation, there are changes in _______ and ________ pressure of the vascular membrane.
    Permeability and Intravascular
  11. With inflammation, changes expedite the escapes of fluid in _______ _______ to produce swelling.
    Interstitial space
  12. In Inflammation, many proteins, and white blood cells escape with the fluid to destroy _______, neutralize _______, destroy dead or dying tissue. Eventually new _______ facilitate tissue repair.
    • Bacteria
    • Toxins
    • Capillaries
  13. 6 causes of tissue damage:
    • Hypoxia
    • Microbial infections
    • Ionizing radiation
    • Chemicals
    • Allergic or immune reactions
    • Cancer
  14. Etiology - Mutagens that cause unusual changes in DNA of cells they attack?
    Chemical carcinogens
  15. Etiology: 4 Viral
    • Epstein Barr virus
    • Human papillomarvius
    • Hepatitis B virus
    • Human T-cell leukemia type I virus
  16. Etiology: Who are affected by Ionizing radiation (2)
    • Radiation workers
    • Atomic bomb survivors
  17. Pathological Diagnosis: 3 types of biopsy
    • Exfoliative cytology
    • Fine needle aspiration
    • Open biopsy
  18. Pathological Diagnosis: Classify Cancer (2)
    • Grade
    • Stage ( TNM and AJCC)
  19. * Note *
    All cells share the ability to produce energy and maintain themselves in a star of normal function by elaborating a vast array of proteins and macromolecules that facilitate adaptation to physiologic or pathological stress.
  20. * Note *
    The discipline seeks to understand the effect of disease on the function of the human organism at all levels and relate functional alterations to changes perceived at the gross anatomic, cellular and sub cellular levels.
  21. In detection and diagnosis, the two most important and effective strategies of saving lives.
    • Prevention
    • Early screening
  22. An objective finding as perceived NY examiner
    Sign (example - person is jaundice, physically seen)
  23. Subjective indication of a disease or change in condition as perceived by patient
    Symptom (example - patient has headache, how someone feels)
  24. Set of signs or symptoms arising from common cause
    Syndrome
  25. The use of sight to observe
    Inspection
  26. 3 Examples of inspection during physical exam:
    • Color is skin
    • Lesions
    • Asymmetry on the surface of skin
  27. Use of touch to acquire information
    Palpatation
  28. 2 Examples of palpation during a physical exam
    • Axillary lymph nodes
    • Enlarged liver
  29. Act of striking or tapping patient gently
    Percussion
  30. During a physical exam, percussion is used to look for (2 examples)
    • Looking for kidney infection
    • Where the lungs and abdomen begin
  31. Act of listening to sounds in the body
    Auscultation
  32. Example of auscultation during a physical exam
    Stethoscope listens to heart and lungs
  33. Checking temperature, blood pressure, pulse and respirations
    Vital signs
  34. Regularity of breathing
    Rhythm
  35. 4 things that are important when testing/screening
    • Prevalence
    • Incidence
    • Sensitivity
    • Specificity
  36. Probability of disease in the entire population at one time
    Prevalence
  37. Probability that a patient without disease develops the disease during an interval
    Incidence
  38. 1 in 8 women develops ________ cancer and is an example of _______
    • Breast
    • Incidence
  39. 1 in 8 men develops ________ cancer and is an example of ________
    • Prostate
    • Incidence
  40. Probability of a positive test among patients with disease
    Sensitivity
  41. Probability of negative test among patients without disease
    Specificty
  42. Starting at age 40, mammograms should be done how often?
    Yearly
  43. Clinical breast exams should be done every _______ years for age 20,s and 30's.
    Three
  44. SBE should start at age 20. What is SBE?
    Self Breast Exams
  45. _______ _______ is recommended for women with strong family history
    Screening MRI
  46. Beginning at the age 50, men and women should do one if the following colon/rectal screening:
    • Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) Or Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) every year
    • Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) every 5 years
    • Double contrast Barium Enema (BE) every 5 years
    • Colonoscopy every 10 years
  47. * Note *
    • Starting at age 50, men should have a PSA test and digital rectal exam (DRE) done by a physician annually.
    • African American men or men with strong family history should start at age 45.
  48. * Note *
    Cervical screening should begin 3 years after a women begins vaginal intercourse but no later than age 21.
  49. * Note *
    Cervical screening should be done annually until age 30, and can be reduced to every 2 to 3 years if multiple negative tests have been performed
  50. * Note *
    Endometrial: Women after menopause should report any vaginal bleeding or spotting

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