The branch of medicine devoted to the study and understanding of the disease.
Represents a set of circumstances in which cellular processes associated with life proceed normally and in accordance with the function genetically associated to that cell
Nutrition, protection, communication, mobility and reproduction are associated with
When cells are under stress, __________ is hard to maintain. Changes in cellular structure become clear and pathological or disease state ensues.
Cellular death or changes that prove lethal to the cell
Consistent with cell survival if the precipitating cause is corrected
Monitoring of and response to tissue damage, redness, warmth, swelling, and pain
_______ ________ is a complex, immunochemical reaction initiated by normal cells that have been injured
________ begins as local vascular dilation that permits an increase in blood flow to tissue and accounts for redness and warmth.
With inflammation, there are changes in _______ and ________ pressure of the vascular membrane.
Permeability and Intravascular
With inflammation, changes expedite the escapes of fluid in _______ _______ to produce swelling.
In Inflammation, many proteins, and white blood cells escape with the fluid to destroy _______, neutralize _______, destroy dead or dying tissue. Eventually new _______ facilitate tissue repair.
6 causes of tissue damage:
Allergic or immune reactions
Etiology - Mutagens that cause unusual changes in DNA of cells they attack?
Etiology: 4 Viral
Epstein Barr virus
Hepatitis B virus
Human T-cell leukemia type I virus
Etiology: Who are affected by Ionizing radiation (2)
Atomic bomb survivors
Pathological Diagnosis: 3 types of biopsy
Fine needle aspiration
Pathological Diagnosis: Classify Cancer (2)
Stage ( TNM and AJCC)
* Note *
All cells share the ability to produce energy and maintain themselves in a star of normal function by elaborating a vast array of proteins and macromolecules that facilitate adaptation to physiologic or pathological stress.
* Note *
The discipline seeks to understand the effect of disease on the function of the human organism at all levels and relate functional alterations to changes perceived at the gross anatomic, cellular and sub cellular levels.
In detection and diagnosis, the two most important and effective strategies of saving lives.
An objective finding as perceived NY examiner
Sign (example - person is jaundice, physically seen)
Subjective indication of a disease or change in condition as perceived by patient
Symptom (example - patient has headache, how someone feels)
Set of signs or symptoms arising from common cause
The use of sight to observe
3 Examples of inspection during physical exam:
Color is skin
Asymmetry on the surface of skin
Use of touch to acquire information
2 Examples of palpation during a physical exam
Axillary lymph nodes
Act of striking or tapping patient gently
During a physical exam, percussion is used to look for (2 examples)
Looking for kidney infection
Where the lungs and abdomen begin
Act of listening to sounds in the body
Example of auscultation during a physical exam
Stethoscope listens to heart and lungs
Checking temperature, blood pressure, pulse and respirations
Regularity of breathing
4 things that are important when testing/screening
Probability of disease in the entire population at one time
Probability that a patient without disease develops the disease during an interval
1 in 8 women develops ________ cancer and is an example of _______
1 in 8 men develops ________ cancer and is an example of ________
Probability of a positive test among patients with disease
Probability of negative test among patients without disease
Starting at age 40, mammograms should be done how often?
Clinical breast exams should be done every _______ years for age 20,s and 30's.
SBE should start at age 20. What is SBE?
Self Breast Exams
_______ _______ is recommended for women with strong family history
Beginning at the age 50, men and women should do one if the following colon/rectal screening:
Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) Or Fecal immunochemical test (FIT) every year
Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) every 5 years
Double contrast Barium Enema (BE) every 5 years
Colonoscopy every 10 years
* Note *
Starting at age 50, men should have a PSA test and digital rectal exam (DRE) done by a physician annually.
African American men or men with strong family history should start at age 45.
* Note *
Cervical screening should begin 3 years after a women begins vaginal intercourse but no later than age 21.
* Note *
Cervical screening should be done annually until age 30, and can be reduced to every 2 to 3 years if multiple negative tests have been performed
* Note *
Endometrial: Women after menopause should report any vaginal bleeding or spotting