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5 types of sprinkler systems and their occupancy uses?
- Wet Pipe System-
- Dry Pipe System - used in areas where temperature reaches below freezing, buildings that freeze or refrigerate materials, or outdoor applications
- Deluge System- petroleum plants, aircraft hangars, hazmat storage ( anywhere there is possibility of rapid fire spread over a large area)
- Preaction System- musuems, computer rooms, places with valuables or where water damage would be expensive
- Residential System- dwellings and residential homes
Classes of Standpipes
- Class I - FD or trained personnel use only
- Class II - occupant or untrained persons use
- Class III- can be used by FD or occupant but has same flow requirements of Class I
Types of Standpipe System
- Automatic Wet
- Automatic Dry
- Manual Wet
- Manual Dry
- (first three all have adequate water supply)
Surface water can be influenced by...
Fire flow requirement
A measure comparing the amount of heat a fire is capable of generating vs. the amount of water required to cool fuels below their ignition temp. ( amount of water to put out the fire)
Fire flow capacity
Amount of water available or amount of water a distribution system is capable of flowing (Amount of water available, dictated by water supply)
the amount of fuel available to a fire including a building itself, and its contents
Rural water supplies
Mobile water supply requires shuttle ops. with water tenders between a dump and fill site. Shuttle ops. control the fire flow capacity. These ops. can occur anywhere when inadequate water supply is available. Require coordination and control, and should have a water supply group spervisor in ICS on large events.
Difference between control valves and check valves?
- Control- turn water supply off/on
- Check- allow water to only flow one way to prevent it from flowing back into public water supply/systems
Difference between wet and dry barrel hydrants?
- Wet Barrel- has water in the barrel up to each outlet, used where temp. is not subject to freezing and allow control of individual outlets
- Dry Barrel- has valve at the base of hydrant to control water flow to all outlets, used where temp. is subject to freezing
pressure in a charged supply line when water is not flowing
pressure in a charged system while water is flowing
Preaction systems require and air pressure?
detection system to activate and charge system, have little or no air pressure in piping
Indicating Valve Types
- OS&Y : outside stem and yolk, screw in system is OFF. screw out system is ON
- PIV : Post indicating valve, has a window that indicates OPEN/SHUT on a 3' post
- WIV : wall indicating valve, on wall outside building or near control area of system has window like PIV
Clapper valve to prevent
locks open, water columning
Open or close hydrants....
ALL THE WAY
the pumping of water from a static source by taking advantage of atmospheric pressure to force water from the source into the pump
sudden surge of pressure created by quick opening or closing of valves in a water system. The surge is capable of damagin piping, valves, or pump
Mobile water ops. should speed up by...
increasing efficiency at dump and fill sites, NOT by increasing vehicle speed in between
Components of Water Distribution System
method of getting water, treatment centers, storage, supply, and distribution
transmission lines ---> distribution lines ---> service laterals
underground water tank made of natural rock or concrete capable of holding 30,000+ gallons of water
First standard on residential sprinkler systems
developed in 1975
first sprinkler system to use plastic piping?
Rural water supply ops. require....
Gate valves must indicate open or closed position? T/F
Three ways water is supplied to a distribution system?
Gravity fed, pumped water, combination gravity- pumped
Types of hydrants used by the fire service?
Wet barrel, dry barrel, wall, high pressure, flush-type
First sprinkler systems were designed in...
the late 1800's
3 main control devices?
OS&Y, PIV, WIV
A serious consideration is where the fire department gets its water supply to determine if
water is being robbed from the sprinkler system.
is usually electrically operated with a bimetal strip that bends to touch a contact point.
The fixed temperature heat detector
____ detectors use a radioactive element that emits ions into the chamber
A(n) ____ is a device to speed the operation of the dry pipe valve by detecting the decrease in air pressure.
accelerator or exhauster
The most common temperature at which a sprinkler opens is ____.