Any chemical, element, or compound in the diet that supports normal maintenance of life processes, growth, reproduction, or production of products or work.
Nutrient required by the animal in relatively large amounts.
Nutrient required by the animal in relatively small quantities.
Elements or compounds required in the diet that cannot be synthesized by the animal.
Nutrients that can be synthesized by the animal from dietary precursors.
Essential in the diet only under certain conditions such as gestation, lactation, rapid growth, etc.
Preparation of food within the GI tract for absorption through physical and chemical changes to particle size and structure.
Passage of molecules from the lumen of the GI tract, through the mucosal cells, into blood or lymph systems.
Chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
Relatively short chains of peptides (tens to hundreds).
A chain of amino acids (hundreds to thousands) joined together with peptide bonds.
Liebig's Law of the Minimum
A crop's yield is restricted by the lack of a single element, even though there may be sufficient quantities of all other essential nutrients.
Dietary protein which is not degraded by microbial action in the rumen.
Any fat-soluble (lipophilic), naturally-occuring molecule, such as fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others.
A carboxylic acid, often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fatty acids that contain no double bonds between C atoms.
Fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between C atoms.
Arrangement of H atoms around a carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid in which the H atoms are on the same side of the hydrocarbon chain.
Arrangment of H atoms around a carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid in which the H atoms are on opposite sides of the hydrocarbon chain.
Process of removing carbon-carbon double bonds in a fatty acid by adding hydrogen atoms.
Essential Fatty Acid
A fatty acid required in the diet b/c of an inability by the animal to synthesize it.
A glycerol esterified to 3 FAs; the main component of animal and plant lipid stores.
Esters of FAs containing non-lipid substances.
Derivative of tryglycerides containing glycerol, 2 FAs and 1 phosphate group.
A phospholipid to which a carbohydrate chain is attached.
A biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids.
Cholesterol-based detergent involved in reducing lipid droplet size in the intestine; essential for effeicient fat absoprtion.
Small lipid droplet in the intestine containing FAs, monoglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol, with bile salts on the surface.
Lipid droplets exported from the intestinal cell following lipid absorption. Contains triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and protein.
Sequential removal of 2-carbon units from a FA chain for the production of energy.
Hormone like derivatives of 20-carbon polysunsaturated FAs (arachinonic acid and EPA).