AN SC 260 Definitions

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  1. Nutrient
    Any chemical, element, or compound in the diet that supports normal maintenance of life processes, growth, reproduction, or production of products or work.
  2. Macronutrient
    Nutrient required by the animal in relatively large amounts.
  3. Micronutrient
    Nutrient required by the animal in relatively small quantities.
  4. Essential (Indispendable)
    Elements or compounds required in the diet that cannot be synthesized by the animal.
  5. Non-essential (Dispensable)
    Nutrients that can be synthesized by the animal from dietary precursors.
  6. Conditionally Essential
    Essential in the diet only under certain conditions such as gestation, lactation, rapid growth, etc.
  7. Digestion
    Preparation of food within the GI tract for absorption through physical and chemical changes to particle size and structure.
  8. Absorption
    Passage of molecules from the lumen of the GI tract, through the mucosal cells, into blood or lymph systems.
  9. Peptides
    Chains of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
  10. Polypeptides
    Relatively short chains of peptides (tens to hundreds).
  11. Proteins
    A chain of amino acids (hundreds to thousands) joined together with peptide bonds.
  12. Liebig's Law of the Minimum
    A crop's yield is restricted by the lack of a single element, even though there may be sufficient quantities of all other essential nutrients.
  13. Bypass Protein
    Dietary protein which is not degraded by microbial action in the rumen.
  14. Lipids
    Any fat-soluble (lipophilic), naturally-occuring molecule, such as fats, oils, waxes, cholesterol, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, phospholipids, and others.
  15. Fatty Acid
    A carboxylic acid, often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated.
  16. Saturated
    Fatty acids that contain no double bonds between C atoms.
  17. Unsaturated
    Fatty acids that contain one or more double bonds between C atoms.
  18. Cis Configuration
    Arrangement of H atoms around a carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid in which the H atoms are on the same side of the hydrocarbon chain.
  19. Trans Configuration
    Arrangment of H atoms around a carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid in which the H atoms are on opposite sides of the hydrocarbon chain.
  20. Hydrogenation
    Process of removing carbon-carbon double bonds in a fatty acid by adding hydrogen atoms.
  21. Essential Fatty Acid
    A fatty acid required in the diet b/c of an inability by the animal to synthesize it.
  22. Triglyceride
    A glycerol esterified to 3 FAs; the main component of animal and plant lipid stores.
  23. Compound Lipids
    Esters of FAs containing non-lipid substances.
  24. Phospholipid
    Derivative of tryglycerides containing glycerol, 2 FAs and 1 phosphate group.
  25. Glycolipid
    A phospholipid to which a carbohydrate chain is attached.
  26. Lipoprotein
    A biochemical assembly that contains both proteins and lipids.
  27. Bile Salts
    Cholesterol-based detergent involved in reducing lipid droplet size in the intestine; essential for effeicient fat absoprtion.
  28. Micelle
    Small lipid droplet in the intestine containing FAs, monoglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol, with bile salts on the surface.
  29. Chylomicron
    Lipid droplets exported from the intestinal cell following lipid absorption. Contains triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol, and protein.
  30. Beta Oxidation
    Sequential removal of 2-carbon units from a FA chain for the production of energy.
  31. Eicosanoids
    Hormone like derivatives of 20-carbon polysunsaturated FAs (arachinonic acid and EPA).
Card Set:
AN SC 260 Definitions

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