What have been the post-ERISA legislative trends with regard to the following areas? 
a. maximum deductible contributions
b. limiting tax deferral
c. parity between various business entities
Maximum deductible contributions— Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the trend was to lower the maximum deductible contribution for highly compensated employees. However, the 2001 tax law changed direction by allowing larger contributions for individual employees. This new direction is intended to encourage small businesses to establish plans and to encourage a higher level of qualified plan savings.
Limiting tax deferral— Code Section 401( a)( 9) was introduced in 1986, requiring that distributions from all tax-sheltered plans begin at age 70 1/ 2 (or, in some cases at actual retirement, if later). These minimum-distribution rules affect any retiree receiving qualified plan, 403( b), or IRA distributions.
Parity— Over the years, the trend has been toward giving all types of business entities equal access to retirement plan vehicles. With a few minor exceptions, today C corporations, S corporations, sole proprietorships, partnerships, and even limited liability companies (LLCs) are all on the same footing.
Funding— Over the years, a number of law changes increased required employer contributions and PBGC insurance premiums to shore up the financial status of the PBGC.
Simplification— After years of more and more complexity, in 1996 there was true pension simplification. Administration of 401( k) plans became easier after this law change. The simplification trend continued in 2001 with several rules that simplified administration of 401( k) plans.