Biochem 1

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Author:
lazzsant
ID:
172681
Filename:
Biochem 1
Updated:
2012-09-27 20:36:23
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Biochem
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Biochem 1
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  1. Ethanol metabolism
    • NAD+ = limiting reagent
    • Alcohol dehydrogenase operates via zero-order kinetics
  2. What is ethanol hypoglycemia
    • Elevated NADH/NAD+ ratio ->
    • pyruvate -> lactate
    • oxaloacetate -> malate

    Which stimulates fatty acid synthesis and inhibits gluconeogenesis
  3. Rate determining enzyme for
    De novo pyrimidine synthesis
    Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II
  4. Rate determining enzyme for TCA cycle
    Isocitrate dehydrogenase
  5. Glucokinase
    Liver and B cells of pancreas

    • Low affinity(high Km)
    • High capacity (high Vmax)
    • induced by insulin

    Glucose -> Glucose-6-phosphate
  6. Enzyme and regulators for
    Fructose-6-P to Fructose-1,6,BP
    Phosphofructokinase-1

    • Negative
    • - ATP
    • - Citrate

    • Positive
    • - AMP
    • - fructose-2,6,BP (forced induction)
  7. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
    Pyruvate -> acetyl-CoA

    • Cofactors
    • Pyrophosphate (B1, thiamine)
    • FAD (B2, riboflavin)
    • NAD (B3 niacin)
    • CoA (B5 pantothenate)
    • Lipoic acid
  8. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency
    Backup of pyruvate and alanineĀ  -> lactic acidosis

    CLINICAL: neurologic defects

    • Treatment:
    • increase ketogenic nutrients (high fat content or increase lysine and leucine)
  9. Rotenone
    CN-
    antimycin A
    CO
    Electron transport inhibitors

    Decrease in proton gradient and block of ATP synthesis

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