Islamic Art (part 1)

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    • Dome of the Rock
    • Era: Islamic, 687-692
    • Location: Jerusalem
    • Techniques:
    • dome sits on Noble Enclosure, dominating the platform
    • houses a rock
    • principles from Byzantine empire design instruction and ornamentation
    • double shelled wooden dome
    • 60ft diameter, 75ft height
    • dome reduces rest of building to a base
    • exterior of dome originally covered in glass mosaics
    • rest of building covered in tile mosaics
    • organic patterning that wrapps up the walls, growing up out of groumd
    • two toned stones used in interior arches
    • traditional sight of Adam's burial and/or where Abraham prepare for the sacrifice of Issac
    • temple of Solomon destroyed by Romans
    • Mohammad ascended to the presence of god on the Night Journey as described in the Quaron
    • Mohammad ascended to Heaven
    • tribute to the triumph of Islam
    • coming of a religion
    • sacred to Jews and Christians as well
    • inspirid by Judaism and Christian
    • resembles San Vitale
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    • Great Mosque at Damascus
    • Era: Islamic, 706-715
    • Location: Syria
    • Techniques:
    • Byzantine church converted to mosque
    • Greco-Roman tradition of masonry block, columns and capitals
    • courtyard surrounded by pier arcades - like Roman aqueducts
    • square towers - Roman influence
    • two minarets at the southern corners and one on the north side
    • grand prayer hall on south side faces Mecca
    • hypostyle hall with center lifted but not for light
    • influence from pedimental facade, temple front facade, or triumphal arhces
    • faces courtyard like Roman forum
    • cycle of mosaics in courtyard
    • mosaic
    •     - conch shell niche with a flowering rooftop
    •    - architectural structures in classical perspective
    •    - clusters of houses trees or rivers
    •    - no zoomorphic forms - shun fauna and human figure in sacred places
    •    - in gold inscription said that this was an image of paradise
    •    - abundance and luxury
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    • Plan of the Umayyad Palace
    • Era: Islamic, 740-750
    • Location: Msatta, Jordan
    • Techniques:
    • high walls - safety from Nomadic tribes and for privacy
    • large portal on south side was entrance
    • mosque inside
    • separated by huge open courtyard from residential wing- elaborate bathing facility
    • heating system
    • decorative ornamentation
    • 25 towers
    • symbols of authority over the new land and expressed the owner's wealth
    • numerous palacial residences
    • rural ones more preserved
    • hunting lodges
    • never completed
    • inspired by Roman fortified camps
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    • Stone Frieze
    • Era: Islamic, 743
    • Location: Palace at Mshatta, Jordan
    • Techniques:
    • molded stucco that is the facade on brick work
    • framed by elaborate moldings
    • triangles with rosettes
    • curvilinear and vegetal
    • on palace wall not mosque since it has an animal
    • dense design
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    • Great Mosque at Kairouan
    • Era: Islamic, 836-875
    • Location: Tunisisa
    • Techniques:
    • atrium inspired by Romans
    • one minaret on the north side, square tower with a small dome
    • covered colonnades around atrium
    • early form of buttresses, extension out of wall, weight of walls pushed into ground
    • 3 story minaret
    • houses the oldest know wooden minbar
    • 450x260 ft- square buttress, very attached to the wall
    • made all of stone
    • entrances on east and west
    • oriented on north south access
    • hypostyle hall
    • nave connects the domes and accentuates the axis
    • 8 columned aisles flanking the nave
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    • Great Mosque at Samarra
    • Era: Islamic, 848-852
    • Location: Iraq
    • Techniques:
    • largest in the Near East
    • covering ten acres
    • made of sun-dried bricks
    • square court
    • columns were designed to resemble palm tree trucks that held up a wooden roof
    • minaret
    •    - concentric circles inside of a square
    •    - malwiya - means snail shell in arabic
    •    - 165 ft tall
    •    - linked by a bridge to the mosque
    •    - spiral, stepped ramp
    •    - slope increases from top to bottom
    •    - too tall to be functional, instead announces the presence of Islam in the Tigris Valley
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    • Floor Mosaic
    • Era: Islamic, mid 8th century
    • Location: Palace at Khirbat Al-Mafjar, Jordan
    • Techniques:
    • remains of a bath house
    • 31 different abstract designs
    • variety of floral and geometric shapes with lots of rounded medallions
    • allusions to domes on the ceiling, mosaic mimiced the dome above it
    • tapestry style - each section is its own tapestry
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    • Mausoleum of the Sammanids
    • Era: Islamic, early 10th century
    • Location: Bukhara, Uzbekistan
    • Techniques:
    • Mohammad was against elaborate burial but they gave him one anyways
    • wooden screen and covered dome
    • inspiration from Mohammad's tomb
    • constructed of baked bricks
    • cube with slightly sloping walls
    • each brick is individually shaped - varied surface pattern - gives structure ornamentation, texture, and rhythm
    • some bricks were shaped to look like engaged columns on corners
    • form blind arcades on all 4 sides
    • brick dome on top
    • each arch is separated by an engaged columnette
    • each arch has a tiny point - squinch tradition
    • dome on square - more in the squinch style but no point on top of dome
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    • Great Mosque at Cordoba 
    • Era: Islamic, 8th-10th century
    • Location: Spain
    • Techniques:
    • added to throughout the years
    • prayer hall
    •    - raised ceiling with arches supported by round columns
    •    - square columns in tiers in prayer hall, series of red and white stone - dramatic visual effect
    •    - 36 piers and 514 columns topped by double-tiered arhces holding up a wooden roof
    •    - multilobe style
    •    - scalloped design, or lace like structure
    •    - intent to defy gravity and density
    •    - less bulky
    •    - opens up the space in the prayer hall
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    • Great Mosque at Cordoba
    • Era: Islamic, 8th-10th century
    • Location: Spain
    • Techniques:
    • dome
    •    - octagon shaped base supported on 8 large arches
    •    - done in squinch style
    •    - accentuating organic vegital design by creating ribs that cross each other
    •    - ribs - strengthening the construction of the ceiling
    •    - crossing ribs to create an intricate pattern
    •    - ribs project out
    •    - looks like a flower petal
    •    - aesthetic and technical effect
    • maqsura
    •    - connected by a corridor in the qibla wall
    •    - highly decorative multilobe arches - more scalloped
    •    - mix of piers and columns
    •    - lighter appearance
    •    - walls covered in marble and mosaic
    •    - red and white stone
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    • Dome of Madrasa-I-Shah
    • Era: Islamic, 1612-1637
    • Location: Isfahan, Iran
    • Techniques:
    • glazed tile work
    • each tile is slightly curved
    • squinch like dome
    • change from brick to tile domes
    • spiraling pattern on the dome that grows up the dome
    • organic vegital design but it does not over power the dome, delicate and light
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    • Palace of the Lions
    • Era: Islamic, 1354-1391
    • Location: The Alhambra, Granada, Spain
    • Techniques:
    • fountain - marble lions that carry the water basin - unusual instance of freestanding stone structures in the Islamic world
    • lots of courtyards and lush gardens
    • creates an image of paradise
    • elaborate stucco design
    • very elegant and fancy to dematerialize the density of the walls
    • tall, thin columns \to create more void and less mass
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    • Ceiling of Alhmabra
    • Era: Islamic
    • Location: Granada, Spain
    • Techniques:
    • wooden ceiling covered in stucco
    • wax-like effect
    • decorative lace-like design
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    • Hall of the Two Sisters
    • Era: Islamic
    • Location: Granada, Spain
    • Techniques:
    • abstract design hides Arabic scripture
    • honeycomb stucco design
    • dome that sits on squinch pierced by 8 windows
    • 5000 muqarnas in tiers - prismatic form to deny the structure solidity
    • catch and reflect the sunlight as well as emphasize the abstract patterns
    • symbolizing a paradise
    • flickering light and shadows create the effect of a staring sky as the sun moves thru out the day
    • ceiling and walls scribed with verses written by court poets
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    • Madrasah-Mosque-Mausoleum of Sultan Hasan
    • Era: Islamic, 1356-1363
    • Location: Cairo, Egypt
    • Techniques:
    • theological college devoted to teaching of Islamic law
    • large enough space for colleges, mosque, mausoleum, orphanage, hospital, stores, and maybe a bath house
    • paid for salaries
    • open central courtyard surrounded by four iwans
    • maudrosa in corners and four or five stories of rooms for students
    • behind qibla is the sultan's mausoleum - praying toward sultan
    • austere
    • characterized by its massive geometric clarity
    • striking contrast to the elegance of Alhandra
    • testament to regional styles with in the Islamic world
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    • Taj Mahal
    • Era: Islamic, 1632-1654
    • Location: Agra, India
    • Techniques:
    • its a mausoleum
    • metaphor for Paradise and the Throne of God
    • built as a memorial to the sultan's wife
    • massive structure to a weightless vision
    • made entirely of cream colored marble
    • floats above pool in front of it
    • walls appear paper thin, impression of being translucent
    • unified structure - block and dome are unified
    • sweeping upward movement to the balloon shaped dome on top
    • minarets and corner pavilions that stabilize the piece
    • perfectly symmetrical
    • play of light and shadow
    • walls inlaid with jewels originally

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Islamic Art (part 1)
2012-09-23 05:13:29

Islamic Art (part 1)
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