MPLS Fundamentals

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Author:
piwi2024
ID:
172702
Filename:
MPLS Fundamentals
Updated:
2012-09-23 19:01:42
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MPLS multi protocol label switching ip networking
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MPLS Fundamentals
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  1. 1 MPLS labels are locally significant.

    A True
    B False
    A True
  2. If you want to pop a label but you want to keep the QoS information, which of these is better to use?

    Explicit NULL label
    Implicit NULL label
    Explicit NULL label
  3. The MPLS backbone is visible to CE's?

    True
    False
    False
  4. ATM data is cut into chucks of what size?

    48 bytes
    64 bytes
    53 bytes
    48 bytes
  5. FEC stands for:

    Forwarding Equivalence Channel
    Forwarding Edge Channel
    Forwarding Edge Class
    Forwarding Equivalence Class
    Forwarding Equivalence Class
  6. TLDP send targeted "Hello" messages to multicast address 244.0.0.2.

    True
    False
    False
  7. MPLS can be carried over which Layer 2 technology? (Multiple answers may apply)

    HDLC
    Ethernet
    PPP
    ATM
    Sonet/SDH
    All of the above
    All of the above
  8. Which LSR can do the action "Pop"? (Multiple answers may apply)

    Egress LSR
    Intermediate LSR
    Ingress LSR
    • Egress LSR
    • Intermediate LSR
  9. Packets enter the LSP at the _________ LSR. (Fill in the blank)

    Ingress
    Egress
    Ingress
  10. Packets leave the LSP at the _________ LSR. (Fill in the blank)

    Ingress
    Egress
    Egress
  11. In a typical IP network routers take independent forwarding decisions.

    True
    False
    True
  12. What happens to the TTL when a packet leaves MPLS? (Multiple answers may apply)

    A It is decremented by one
    B It is copied from the label stack to the IP header
    C Nothing
    • A It is decremented by one
    • B It is copied from the label stack to the IP header
  13. Which of these statements in TRUE?

    Packets with the same label always have the same FEC
    Packets with the same FEC always have the same label
    Packets with the same FEC always have the same label
  14. Packets can leave a LSP at any point along it.

    True
    False
    False
  15. RSVP needs to use the underlying IGP for path selection

    True
    False
    False
  16. ATM is based on:

    Frame-switching
    Packet-switching
    Cell-switching
    Cell-switching
  17. LDP makes its own path selection decisions.

    True
    False
    False
  18. MPLS labels can vary in length.

    True
    False
    False
  19. The MPLS header is how many bits long?

    48 bits
    3 bits
    53 bits
    32 bits
    20 bits
    32 bits
  20. Which of these protocols is used to distribute the outer label? (Multiple answers may apply.)

    MG-BGP
    TLDP}
    RSVP
    LDP
    • RSVP
    • LDP
  21. MPLS was defined by the IETF in what year?

    A 1997
    B 2007
    C 1987
    A 1997
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. If an LSR receives a label of 3, what does it mean?

    Do PHP
    Take a closer look at this packet
    This is the bottom label in the stack
    Do PHP
  23. How many layers are there in the OSI model?

    A 5
    B 8
    C 6
    D 7
    D 7
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Which of these are label distribution modes? (Multiple answers may apply)

    Downstream on demand
    Unsolicited downstream
    Unprecedented downstream
    Unsolicited upstream
    Upstream on demand
    • Downstream on demand
    • Unsolicited downstream
  25. Which of these are label distribution modes? (Multiple answers may apply)

    Downstream on demand
    Unsolicited downstream
    Unprecedented downstream
    Unsolicited upstream
    Upstream on demand
    • Downstream on demand
    • Unsolicited downstream
  26. In which of these label distribution modes will the LSR send labels without being asked to do so?

    Downsteam on demand
    Unsolicited Downstream
    Unsolicited Downstream
  27. LSPs are bi-directional.

    True
    False
    False
  28. Which port is an LDP "Hello" message sent on

    A TCP 646
    B UDP 656
    C UDP 636
    D TCP 656
    E UDP 646
    F TCP 636
    E UDP 646
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. Which of these control modes only creates a label binding for a FEC if it has received a label binding from the next-hop or is the egress LSR?

    Downstream LSP control mode
    Upstream LSP control mode
    Ordered LSP control mode
    Dependent LSP control mode
    Independent LSP control mode
    Ordered LSP control mode
  30. The CE router needs to have MPLS running on it.

    True
    False
    False
  31. How many bytes does an MPLS header add to the size of the packet?

    A 4
    B 8
    C 32
    D 1
    A 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. The EXP field of the MPLS header is used for what?

    Indicates the bottom of the stack
    Defines class of service
    Label mapping
    Time to Live
    Defines class of service
  33. MPLS packets are routed through a network.

    True
    False
    False
  34. Inside the LDP identifier there is a 4 byte field that identifies what?

    A LSR
    B Label space
    C Label distribution mode
    D LSP
    E LFIB
    A LSR
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. What is the length of the LDP identifier?

    32 bits
    4 bytes
    4 bits
    6 bytes
    6 bytes
  36. In LDP, the signaling of the labels to neighbors is in the opposite direction to the packet flow.

    True
    False
    True
  37. Which label is used to identify the LSP?

    Inner
    Outer
    Both
    Outer
  38. What does a service provider use to separate customers VPNs?

    Outer label
    EXP field in MPLS header
    Inner label
    Destination IP address
    LDP ID
    Inner label
  39. Which of these protocols require the neighbor to be directly connected?

    A MG-BGP
    B TLDP
    C LDP
    C LDP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. Different VPN customers can use over-lapping IP addresses.

    True
    False
    True
  41. An intermediate LSR can do what action? (Multiple answers may apply)

    Swap
    Push
    PHP
    • Swap
    • PHP
  42. Which label is examined when there are multiple labels in the stack?

    A Outer
    B Both
    C Inner
    A Outer
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. What is another name for ingress LSR? (Multiple answers may apply)

    LSP
    P
    LER
    PE
    • PE
    • LER
  44. IP packets are all the same size.

    True
    False
    False
  45. When using LDP the LSP will follow the same path as the IGPs shortest path.

    True
    False
    True
  46. Intermediate LSR's will look at the IP header on a packet.

    True
    False
    False
  47. Which LSR can do the action "Push"? (Multiple answers may apply)

    Egress LSR
    Ingress LSR
    Intermediate LSR
    Ingress LSR
  48. Match the label number with it's name:

    Label 0              Explicit NULL
    Label 3              OAM
    Label 1              Implicit NULL
    Label 14            Router Alert
    • Label 0 --> Explicit NULL
    • Label 3 --> Implicit NULL
    • Label 1 --> Router Alert
    • Label 14 -> OAM
  49. VCI stands for:

    Virtual _______ Indicator
    • Virtual   Channel  Indicator
  50. Which of these ports is used to negotiate LDP parameters?

    UDP 636
    TCP 636
    UDP 646
    TCP 646
    UDP 656
    TCP 656
    TCP 646
  51. ATM headers are locally significant.

    True
    False
    True
  52. Match the protocol with the traffic identifier:

    ATM                   Timeslots
    Frame Relay        VPI/VCI
    TDM                   DLCI
    • ATM ---------> VPI/VCI (virtual path indicator, virtual channel indicator
    • Frame Relay --> DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier)
    • TDM ---------> Timeslots
  53. Match the RSVP message with the correct statement:

    Path Message      Is sent in the upstream direction
    RESV Message   Is sent in the downstream direction
    • Path Message    --> Is sent in the downstream direction
    • RESV Message -->  Is sent in the upstream direction  

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