History of Microbiology

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History of Microbiology
2010-05-04 04:54:01

Final Exam Review
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  1. What and When is the Golden Age of Microbiology?
    • (1870-1900)
    • A lot of discoveries where made during this time period.
  2. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek

    Invented the first microscope(simple microscope=1 lens) called the things he saw wee animolecules
  3. Rober Hooke
    Used a compound microscope to discover that organisms were made of cells.
  4. Florence Nightengale
    Started the first nursing program/helped care for soldiers
  5. Edward Jenner
    Invented the first vaccine against small pox
  6. Joseph Luster
    was the first surgeon to use aseptic technique.
  7. Ignaz Semmelweis
    First to use hand washing techniques/ greatly reduced puerperal fever.
  8. Robert Koch
    Proved that bacteria caused disease.
  9. Louis Pasteur
    invented vaccine against rabies/ also invented pasteurization
  10. What is an Organic Molecule
    A molecule that contains carbon and oxygen.
  11. What is the function of a protein?
    transport substances, allow for movement, catalyzing reactions and provide structure
  12. Denaturation
    disrups function and structure of protein
  13. Lipids
    • groups: phospholipids, fats,waxes, and steroids.
    • They are hydrophobic.
  14. Fats
    • made from dehydration synthesis reactions
    • saturated:single bonds
    • Unsaturated: double bonds
  15. Waxes
    • Esters of alcohol(contain alcohol in them) and fatty acids
    • water insoluble
    • difficult to breakdown
    • used for energy storage
  16. Steroids
    • 4 rings ( contain 5 to 6 carbon atoms) that are fused to one another and also have various side chains.
    • Some act as hormones and maintain the structural integrity of membranes. as temp fluctuates.
  17. Carbohydrates
    • made from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • most contain and equal number of oxygen and carbon and twice the number of hydrogen
  18. protein structures
    • primary: amino acid sequence
    • Secondary: a-helix and B-pleated sheet
    • Tertiary: Both
  19. Everything pH
    • If solution leaves (-oh) then it is a base
    • If solution leaves (-H) then it is an acid

    • base is 8-14 on the scale
    • acid is 1-6 on the scale
    • (goes up by ten so 6 is 10x more acidic than 7
  20. Nucleic Acids
    • Location: found in nucleus.
    • contain genetic material of the cell.
    • Function: store and transmit info.
  21. nucleotides
    Made up of a phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogenous base(carbon,hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen).
  22. RNA
    Function: acts like an enzyme and binds amino acids together to form polypeptides
  23. ATP
    • Cell Energy
    • made from three phosphate groups and adenine group.
  24. Purines
    • Double ringed
    • Ex: adenine and guinine
  25. Pyrimidines
    • They are single ringed
    • Ex: thymine, cytosine, uracil
  26. 3'' and 5''
    • DNA is structured this way. Said to be antiparallel
    • called 3 prime and 5 prime because the end is located in carbon 3
  27. Semi-conservative
    DNA said to be semi conservative because each new DNA is made from an old parent strand and a new daughter strand.
  28. Leading Strand
    is DNA synthesized continously
  29. Lagging strand
    synthesized in short segments.
  30. DNA helicase
    separates the DNA strands by breaking the H bond between nucleotides
  31. DNA polymerase
    replicates DNA by adding nucleotides to a hydroxyl group.
  32. Start codon is
    AUG( methionine)
  33. End Codons are:
    • UAA
    • UAG
    • UGA
  34. Transcription
    Where: Occurs in nucleus, mitochondria. Plant cells have it in the chloroplast. Prokaryotes have it in the cytoplasm.

    Process: RNA Polymerase reads gene and make a copy of DNA strand.
  35. Introns
    • Introns are non coding regions that must be removed my MRNA( only in eukaryotes)
    • Exons: regions that encode proteins.
  36. 4 Types of RNA
    • RNA primer: molecules for DNA polymerase to use during DNA replication
    • MRNA: molecules which cary out info from chromosomes to ribosomes
    • TRNA: deliver amino acids to the ribosomes
    • RRNA: combine with ribosomal polypeptides to form ribosomes
  37. 3 types of RNA polymerase ( functions)
    • 1. one for transcribing MRNA
    • 2. one for transcribing the major RNA gene
    • 3. one for transcribing TRNA and small RNA molecules
  38. Inclusion
    • Storage (multiple substances)
    • magnetosome( navigation along magnetic fields)
  39. Diffusion
    The net movement of net particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration( happens spontaneously)
  40. Osmosis
    The net movement of water from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration, across a selective permeable membrane.
  41. Isotonic:
    • isotonic: solute concentration same in and outside of cell
    • Hypertonic: high concentration of solute and high concentration of H2O
    • hypotonic:solution has fewer solutes and cytoplasm has more solutes
  42. Passive transport
    No energy required.
  43. Active transport
    energy spent
  44. Taxonomy
    • naming of organisms
    • invented by Carolus Linnaeus invented binomial nomen.
  45. Domains
    • kingdoms
    • phylum
    • class
    • order
    • family
    • genus
    • species
  46. bacterial cell shapes
    • coccus-circlular "ball" shape
    • Rod/bacillis- oval shape "pill" like
    • spirillum- spiral like shape
    • spirochete- cork like
    • vibro- curved rod shape
    • diplococcus- spherical and grow in pairs
    • filamentous- long thin "filaments"
  47. Viruses
    • obligate intracellular parasites.
    • have either DNA or RNA genome but never both( until 2010)
    • they contain- nucleic acid genome, and a capsid
    • some have VIRAL ENVELOPES they get envelopes from the host cells they infect.
  48. naked viruses
    viruses without envelopes
  49. viral shapes
    • icosahedron- 20 sided polyhedron
    • helical:spiral just RNA strand coated with proteins
    • bacteriophage- have both
  50. Envelope glycoproteins
    determine host specificity.
  51. Lytic Cycle
    • attachment
    • entry
    • bacterial chromosome degraded
    • synthesis-alot of viral replication
    • assembly
    • release
  52. Direct penetrition
    genome is injected inside, while capsid stays outside
  53. membrane fusion
    • only envelope viruses do this
    • glycoproteins remain in the host membrane while the virus merges with the host.
  54. endocytosis
    • glycoprotein in viral membrane binds with membrane protein in host
    • cytoplasmic membran engulfs virus
    • host cell membrane wraps around viral membrane
    • viral genome bust out onto host cell
  55. What determines HIV's host range?
  56. how does HIV infect a host cell?
    • GP 120 binds to the CD4 receptor of a host cell
    • when this happens CXCR4 arrives and binds
    • when this happens the head(GP120) falls off which exposes GP41
    • that causes the viral envelope to fuse with the host cell
    • causing the release of the viral capsid which contains genome and proteins
  57. Herpes 1
    causes the above the waist lesions
  58. herpes 2
    causes the genital lesions
  59. dermatome
    region of skin enervated by skin
  60. Vericella Zoster
    • chicken pox
    • less serious as a child
    • very contagious
    • could come back as shingles "herpes zoster"
  61. Epstein-Barr Virus
    • caused by burkitts lymphoma and infections mononucleosis
    • you get it as a young child
    • first virus that showed it could cause cancer!
  62. Bacteria divide by
    binary fission
  63. growth in prokaryotes occurs in terms of
    population not size
  64. eukaryotes grow in terms of
    in size
  65. prokaryotes reproduces to
    an identical clone of the parent cell and acts the same
  66. eukaryotes reproduce to
    stem cells- could turn into different cells
  67. binary fission(steps)
    • 1. cell elongates and DNA is replicated
    • 2. Cell wall and plasma membrane begin to grow inward
    • 3. cross-wall forms completely around DNA
    • 4. cells seperate
  68. phases of bacteria in a closed system
    • lag phase- detecting environment
    • log phase- their growing
    • stationary phase- growth levels off
    • logarithmic decline phase- population overal are dying.
  69. additive vs. exponential
    • additive- cells divide by 1
    • exponential- cells double(more numbers)
  70. bacteria has___________ when in a certain temperature.
    optimum growth.
  71. Blood agar is...
    a complex differential medium

    • alpha hemolysis- partial destruction
    • beta hemolysis- complete destruction
    • gamma hemolysis- no destruction
  72. MacConkey agar....
    • is both differential and selective
    • kills gram positive bacteria
    • differential for lactose fermentation
  73. bacteria that moves is called____
  74. sanitation
    • controlling microbial growth
    • has to do with food and public health
  75. disinfection
    on non living objects or surfaces
  76. antisepsis
    on living tissue clean of bacteria
  77. sterilization
    the killing of all microorganisms
  78. autoclaving
    high temp. high pressure
  79. dry heat
    hot air oven, incineration
  80. wet heat
    • tyndallization control endospores
    • boiling and reboiling- kills spores you reboil because spores could regerminate
    • pasteurization-rapid heating before boiling point
    • filtration-physical removal
  81. chemical methods of control
    • irradiation- uv radiation
    • soaps and detergents-removal surfactant activity
    • gas- kills microorganism used on antiques
    • antibiotics- used to remediate living organism
    • antiseptics and disinfectants- chemicals used on surfaces
  82. Antibiotics three types
    • antibiotics are any chemical that kills any organism
    • 1. salverson- 1st gen. toxic to host cells
    • 2. sulfa dogs- 2nd gen. metabolic reaction/ allergic reactions
    • 3. natural products- 3rd gen. penicillin
  83. phosphorylated means
    add a phosphate group
  84. kinase
    any enzyme that phosphorylates something
  85. 4 major resistance mechanisms
    • 1.chemically modify antibiotic compound
    • 2. mutate target structure
    • 3.MDR efflux pump( protein pumps out drug)
    • 4 reduce permeability ( block uptake)
  86. 3 mechanism for controlling bacterial growth
    • bacteriostatic- stop bacteria from dividing stop population from growing
    • bacteriolyctic- physically destroys bacteria
    • bacteriocidal- example raid
  87. sporulation
    • in bacteria
    • triggered by nutrients deprivation
    • cell dies but spore doesn't
    • germination happens when there is nutrients.
  88. Flagellar motility
    • monotrichous- have only one flagella
    • iophotricous- have many flagella that originate from one side
    • amphitricous- have flagella on both sides
    • peritricous- have flagella on all sides
  89. chemotaxis
    movement towards an attraction or away from repellant
  90. Acyclovir
    • anti-viral medication
    • really hard to make
    • guanine analog- could be used instead of guanine
    • blocks nucleotide polymerization
  91. Enzyme is ....
    an organic catalyst
  92. catalyst is....
    something that speeds up a reaction/ makes it likely to happen
  93. coenzyme
    • is a vitamin
    • organic
  94. cofactor
    • inorganic
    • mineral
  95. haloenzyme
    an enzyme with both a cofactor and a coenzyme
  96. apoenzyme
    if other parts are present than there are other parts
  97. metabolism
    sum of all reaction in a cell
  98. anabolism
    a build up of small molecules into larger molecules
  99. catabolism
    requires energy
  100. koch Postulates
    was the first person to show that microorganisms cause disease
  101. 4 conditions( koch postulates)
    • 1. suspected germ present in all cases of disease
    • 2. germ must be isolated and grown in pure culture
    • 3. isolated must cause disease when injected in normal healthy host
    • 4. the same germ that was injected must again be isolated
  102. 5 stages of disease
    • incubation period- no signs or symptoms
    • prodromal period- vague general symptoms
    • illness- most severe signs or symptoms
    • decline- declining signs and symptoms
    • convalescence- no signs or symptoms
  103. signs vs symptoms
    • signs- things detected by other people
    • symptoms- things only detected by you
  104. phagocytosis
    engulfment and destruction of a foreign body
  105. phagocytosis(steps)
    • 1 pseudopod moves outward to engulf the microbe
    • 2 once inside they are carried in phagosomes
    • 3 lysosomes dump their contents by fusing to phagosomes
    • 4 killing by enzymes and chemicals
    • 5 elimination by exocytosis
  106. virulence vs. virulence factors
    • virulence- ability to cause disease
    • virulence factors- some component or product that allows microbe to cause disease
  107. exotoxin
    bacteria secrete toxin outside host cell
  108. cytotoxin
    kills host cells
  109. endotoxin
    dead gram neg. bacteria release endotoxin( lipid A)
  110. hyaluronidase
    • enzyme destroys hyalyronic acid- which helps cells stick together
    • when this process happens the cells lose the acid and do not stick allowing bacteria to enter
  111. collagenase
    destroys collagen which makes tissue elastible
  112. coagulase
    causes blood clots which allow bacteria to be hidden
  113. biofilms
    extracellular matrix of polysaccharides secreted by bacteria only on surfaces
  114. quorum sensing
    mechanism by which bacteria detect population numbers
  115. symbiosis
    2 organism live together in close association
  116. axenic
    containing no foreign or non self organisms
  117. normal microbiota
    microorganisms that live together with eukaryotes
  118. mutualism
    both bacteria and host benefit
  119. commensalism
    1 benefits and the other doesn't and neither is harmed
  120. pathogenisis
    one benefits the other is harmed
  121. Ang 4 functions
    • kills bacteria in gut
    • and is angiogenic formation of blood vessels
  122. first line of defense
    • exterior defenses
    • non specific
    • blocks 99.9 of bacteria
  123. second line of defense
    • inate immunity
    • no specific
  124. inflamation
    response of vascular tissue to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens or damage cells
  125. inflammation(symptoms)
    • redness
    • swelling
    • heat
    • pain
  126. antigen
    something that can stimulate and immune response
  127. blood travels in _____
    lymph travels in______
    • 2 directions
    • 1 direction
  128. lymph nodes
    structures that serve as the structures that serve as the sites of cell to cell communication
  129. antibodies
    • very specific
    • bind to antigens
  130. antigen
    foreign molecule that causes immune response
  131. CD4 binds to
  132. CD8 binds to
    MHC 1
  133. plasma cells
    type of B cell make antibodies
  134. memory cells
    • type of B cell
    • provide immunological memory
  135. killed vaccine
    pathogen is killed but retains normal shape
  136. live vaccine
    pathogen is alive but it is crippled so that it can no longer cause disease
  137. subunit vaccine
    a surface protein form the pathogen is used
  138. third line of defense is
    • adaptive immunity
    • specific
  139. auxotroph
    bacteria that lack a particular nutrient or the ability to synthesize that nutrient
  140. ames test
    used to identify mutants
  141. plasmid
    small circular, extrachromosomal DNA molecule
  142. origin of replication
    determines high or low copy
  143. recombination
    happens by crossing over of DNA strands
  144. horizontal gene transfer
    • horizontal because it happens in the same generation
    • not reproductive
  145. conjugation
    marriage between two bacteria
  146. operon
    multiple genes under one control
  147. 3 parts of operon and function
    • promoter- nucleotide sequence that enables a gene to be transfered
    • operator- a segment of DNA that a repressor binds to
    • structural gene- regulated by operon
    • regulatory gene- regulate operons
  148. LAC operon
    • inducible operon( normally off but could be turned on)
    • genes in lac operon responsible for the breakdown of lactose
    • lactose is inducer
  149. reporter construct
    human made strand
  150. fungi
    may be unicellular or multicellular some of them could switch between both