strenght and conditioning

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strenght and conditioning
2012-09-23 13:05:30
chapter one

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  1. strength training and conditioning
    is a term that has benn adapted to include several modalities of exercise.
  2. milo of crotona
    • best known greek strongman
    • 5 time wrestling champion
    • 22 time strenth champion
    • credited with the first use of progressive overload during RT. by carrying a calf
  3. galen
    • famous greek physician
    • first medical doctor to recommend rt.
    • promoted hand held weights
  4. michel de montainge
    • famous french writer
    • described the benefits of strength training with reference to his father camerarius
  5. jachim camerarius
    wrote about weigh training and how it could lead to improved health and performance
  6. dudley sargent
    • a harvard trained medical doctor
    • invented several exercise machines and developed methods to assess muscular strength and performance(vertical jump test)
  7. the era of the strongmen
    time where great feats of strength performance led to the realization of the potential for improving strenght and apperance.
  8. george barker windship
    health lift
  9. louis cyr
    • canadian stongman
    • possessed phenomenal stenght including a 4337 lb back lift
    • and a famous horse pull demonstration
  10. louis uni
    • french circus strongman who performed the one arm snatch with 80-90 kg, juggling with 20 kg wights
    • known to train with what todayl would be akin to thick bars
  11. ludwig durlacher
    was a german strongman with incredible core strength who had claimed to invent, adapt, or modify several pieces of trainig equipment including the roman chair.
  12. george hackenschmidt
    • also known as the russian lion
    • was a wrestling champion and strongman
    • claim to inventing the hack squat
  13. charles  atlas
    • became known as the worlds most perfectly deeveloped man who began as 97 lb weakling
    • training philosophy was dynamic tension and consisted of 12 lessons of resistance exercises( body weight, isometrics) that could be perfomed anywhere for 15 minutes
  14. bob hoffman
    • was known as the father of american weightliftng
    • wrote several books, manufactured nutrition suppplements, and helped make the usa a weight lifting powerhouse through the mid 1950
  15. rehabilitation
    implies an injury or disease occurred which posed some physical limitation and now the individual trains to strengthen the weakened area
  16. prehabilitation
    where the primary goal is injurey prevention
  17. maintenance training
    is to maintain off season training gains and adaptations as best as possible.
  18. integrative training
    where multiple goals are sought for training purposes
  19. health related fitness components
    • are those that are designated as improving health, wellness, and ones quality of life
    • improvements in thes components can enhance physical performance
    • include muscular strenght, muscular endurance, cardiovasular endurance, flexibility, and body composition
  20. muscular strength
    the maximal amount of force one can generate during a specific movement pattern at a specifed velocity of contraction.
  21. how may dynamic muscle action determine muscular strength
    in the weight room via a 1 rm lift for a given exercise, that is the maximal amount of weight lifted in one all out effort
  22. absoulute muscular strenght
    • the ultimate magnitude of force development
    • represent the limit of physical capacity of an individual for a specific exercise
  23. relative muscular strength
    • maximal strength is expressed relative to body mass or lean body mass
    • critical for many athletes who complete in weight classes
  24. stregnth to mass ratio
    enables high levels of force production without the addition of substantial mass gains.
  25. allometric scaling
    theoretically based on the two thirds law where geometric similarity is sought
  26. muscular endurance
    the ability to sustain performance and resist fatigue
  27. submaximal muscular endurance
    characterized by the ability to sustain low intensity muscular contractions for an extended period of time
  28. high intensity endurance
    the ability to maintain high intensity muscular contraction over time (the ability torun repeated sprints with similar times
  29. local muscular endurance
    ability to sustain exercise, however  the term local specifically refers to the muscle groups invoved in that exercise
  30. having good muscular endurance is important for?
    • good posture
    • health
    • injury prevention and aids in optimizing sports performance
  31. cardiovascular endurance
    • the ability to perfom prolonged aerobic exercise at moderate to high exercise intensities.
    • highly related to functioning of the lungs, heart, and circulatory system and capacity of skeletal muscle to extract oxygen and therby sustain performance
    • essentail to good health and reducing risk factors for disease, as well as inproving self image, cognitive functioning and stress managment.
  32. what is the key measure of cardiovascular endurance or aerobic capacity
    • maximal oxygen uptake or vo2max
    • moderately high to high vo2max is a critical component for sucess in endurance athletes and posseing a good aerobic base
  33. flexibility
    • the ability of a joint to move freely its ROM
    • joint flexibility can reduce injury risk, improve muscle balace and function, increase performance, improve posture, and reduce the incidence of low back pain.
  34. ways to increase flexibility
    perform exercises in a full rom and engage in a proper stretching program. preferably at the end of a workout when the muscles are thoroughly warmed up
  35. body composition
     refers to the proportion of fat and fat free mass throughout the body
  36. fat free mass or lean body mass
    is that component consisting of bone, muscle, water and other nonfat tissue
  37. what is the best way to enhance body composition
    to eat properly ( low saturated fat intak, low simple sugar consumption, moderate protein intake, and appropriate kilocalorie intake)and exercise regularyl
  38. hypertrophy
    term used to describe tissue growth
  39. skilled related componets of fitness
    • includes power
    • speed
    • balance and coordination
    • reation time
    • agility
  40. power
    • is the rate of performing work
    • is the product of force and velocity , there is a strength component to power development
    • power has time componet
    • thus if two athletes have similar maximal strenght the one who expresses strength at a higher rate or velocity will have a distinct advantage during performance of anaerobic sports
  41. speed strength and acceleration strenght
    have been used to define force development across a spectrum of velocities
  42. starting strength
    dexcribe poer production during the initial segment of movement
  43. rate of force devlopment
    describes power output during an explosive exercise task, assessed by the time needed to reach a threshold  level of force or the amouont of force procduced per second
  44. power development is
    multidimensional, involving enhancement of both force and velocity components.
  45. speed
    the capacity of an individual to perform a motor skill as rapidly as possible
  46. linear running speed is defined by three distinct phases
    • acceleration
    • maximum speed
    • eceleration
  47. acceleration phase
    characterized by an increase in speed , and is reliant upon strength , powr , and reaction time
  48. maximum speed pahse
    characterized by the individuals attainment of his or her fastest speed and how long he or she can maintain speed endurance
  49. deceleration phase
    is a result of fatigue and is characterized by the individual involuntaryily decreasing speed after maximum speed has been attained
  50. speed may be enhanced by
    methods including nonassisted and assisted sprint training, strength and power trainig, plyometrics, technique training, and sports specific practice
  51. agility
    the ability of an individual to change direction rapidly without a significant loss of speed, balance. or bodily control.
  52. being agial reqluires
    a great deal of power, strength, balance, coordination, quickness, speed, anticipation, and neuromuscular control
  53. balance
    • is the ablility of an individual to maintiain equilibrium
    • requirs control over the athlets center of gravity and allows him or her to maintain proper body position during complex motor skill performance.
  54. gross motor coordination
    the ability of an indvidual to perform a motor skill with good technique, rhythm, and accuracy
  55. critical elements to coordination include
    • balance
    • spatial awareness
    • timing
    • motor learning
  56. reaction time
    • the ability to respond rapidly to a stimulus
    • the quicker an athlete reacts to a stimulus the more likely success will be obtained
    • reaction  time may be improved by explosive exercise
  57. eccentric
    • muscle action involves muscle lengthening
    • described as the negative component of each repetition
    • produce higher levels of force, are very conducive to muscle growth, and make an athlete mor susceptible to muscle damage and soreness.
  58. a concentric
    • muscle action invloved in muscle shortening
    • positive componetn of eact repetition
  59. isometric
    muscle action involves force developmetn with no noticeable change in joint angle or muscle length
  60. greatest muscle force is procduced by
    eccentric, thenisometric then concentric
  61. con and exx muscle axtions are considered to be
    dynamice muscle actions because force production throughout the rom is varible
  62. isotonic
    equal tension is produced throughout the rom
  63. torque
    the amount of force
  64. repetition
     a complet movement cyclel including an ecc and con muscle actin
  65. set
    a specified group or number of repetitions
  66. volume
    the total amount of work performed during a workout. the toal number of sets, resistance, and repetitions performed
  67. intenstiy
    magnitued of loading during rt training
  68. frequency
    • the number of training sessions per week or day
    • the number of times per week a muscle group, or specific exercise is performed
  69. repetition velocity
    • the velocity at which reps are performed
    • how fast you do the set
  70. proficiency
    advancement in knowledge skill or experties in a particular area of intrest