structural variations of he amino acid tyrosine; thyroxine, epinephrine
chainss of amino acids; epetides are the short chains.
made from cholesterol;cortisol, aldosterone, estrogen, testosterone
When are Hormones secreted
when there is a need for their effect.
The secretion of most hormones is regulated by
negative feedback mechanisms
Posterior Pituatary stores hormones produced by
increases water reabsorption by the kideys, decreases sweating, in large amounts causes vasoconstriction which results in decrease urination and increase blood volume which increase BP
ADH: Antidiuertic Hormone
nerve impulses from hypothalamus when body water decreases
contraction of myometrium of uterus during labor and release milk from mammary glands.
nerve impulses from hypothalamus as cervix is stretched or as infant sucks on nipple.
Neurohypophysis is another term for
Adenohypophysis is another term for
Which pituatary secretions are regulated by releasing hormones from the hypothalamus
increases amino acid transport into cells and increases protein synthesis; increases rae of mitosis; increases use of fats for energy
Stimulus of GH
GHRH (growth hormone-releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
increases secretion of thyroxine and T3 by the thryoid.
Stimulus of TSH
TRH (thyrotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex
Stimulus of ACTH (adrenocorticotropin hormone)
CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
initiates and maintains milk production by the mammary glands.
stimulus of Prolactin
PRH (prolactin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
In women: initiates development of ova in ovarian follicles and secrion of estrogen by follicle cells.
In men: initiates sperm development in the testes.
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone
Stimulus of FSH
GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
In women: stiumulates ovulation, transforms mature follicle into corpus luteum and stimulates secretion of progesterone.
In men: stimultes secretion of testosterone by the testes.
LH (lutenizing hormone)
Stimulus of LH
GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus
is produced by thyroid follicles. increase use of all food types for energy and increase protein synthesis. Also is necessary fro normal physical, mental and sexual development.
Thyroxine (T4 ) and T3
Produced by parafollicular cells. decreases reabsorption of calcium from bones and lowers blood calcium level.
stimulus of calcitonin
How many parathyroid glands are there
2 on posterior of each lobe of thyroid
increases reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bones to the blood; increases absorption of clcium and phosphate by the small intestine; increase reaborption of calcium and excertion f phosphate by the kidneys, anc activates Vitamin D which results in
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
and results in raises blood calcium and lowers blood phosphate levels
Stimulus of PTH
Inhibitor of PTH
organ that extends from curve of duodenum to the speen. Islets of Langerhands contain apha cells and beta cells
is secreted by alpha cells. Stimulates liver to change phycogen to glucose also increases use of fats and amoino acids for energy.
what is the results of glucagon
raises blood glucose level.
Stimulus of glucagon
is secreted by beta cells. Increases use of glucose by cells to produce energy; stimulates liver and muscles to hcange clucose to glycogen; increases cellular intake of fatty acids and amino acid to use for synthesis of lipids and proteins.
results of insulin
lowers blood glucose level
stimulus of insulin
inhibits secretion of insulin and glucagon
Organ on top of kidney
Adrenal Glands: inner adrenal medulla and outer adrenal cortex
produces catecholamines in stress situatuions
Norepinephrine and epinephrine is from which part of the adrenal glands
inner adrenal medulla
stimulates vasoconstriction and raises blood pressure
increases heart rate and force
causes vasocontriction in skin and viscera
vasodialtion in skeltal muscles
causes liver to change gycogen to glucose
increases use of fats for energy
increases rate of cell respiration
Stimulus of epinephrine
sypmathetic impulses from the hypothalamus
produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and very small amounts of sex hormones.
what are the hormones from the adrenal cortex
aldosterone and cortisol
increases reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium by the kidneys.
maintains normal blood pH, blood volume, and Bp.
Stimulus of Aldosterone
decreased blood sodium or elevated blood potassium
decreased blood volume
decreased blood pressure (activates the renin-angiostensinmechanism of the kidneys)
increases use of fats and amino acids for energy
decreases use of glucose to conserve glucose for the brain
antinflammatory effect by blocking effects of histamine and stablizes lysosomes to prevent excessive tissue damage
Stimulus of Cortisul
ACTH from hypothalamus during physiological stress
Hormone produced by follicle cells.
Promotes maturation of ovum
stimulates growth of blood vessels in endometrium
stimulates development of 2ndry sex characteristics
growth of duct system of mamamary glands
growth of uterus
promotes closure of epiphyses of long bones
lowers blood levels of cholesterol and triglycerides
Stimulus of estrogen
FSH from anterior pituitary
Hormone produced by the corpus luteum
Promotes storage of glycogen and futher growth of blood vessels in the endometrium
promotes growth of secretory cells of mammary glands
stimulus of progesterone
LH form anterior pituitary
inhibits secretion of FSH
hormone produced by interstitial cells
promotes maturation of sperm in testes
stimulates development of 2ndry sex characteristics growth of reproductive organs, facial and body hair, larynx, skeltal muscles
promots closure of epiphyses of long bones
stimulus of testosterone
LH from the anterior pituatary
produced by sustentacular cells
inhibits secretio nof FSH to maintain a constant rate of sperm production
stimulus for testosterone
LH from anterior pituatary
hormone secreted by the pineal gland during darkness; brings on sleep
hormone synthesized by cells from the phospholipids of their cell memebranes
exert their effects locally
are involved in inflammation and pain, reproduction, nutrient metabolism, changes in blood vessels, blood clotting
How hormones exert their effects on their target organs a hormone must first bond to what
a receptor or target cell
what usually gond to receptor of the cell membnrand and what is the hormone called