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2012-09-23 15:39:11
Basic Biology

Chapter 1
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  1. Identify the atom
    Smallest unit of an element composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.
  2. Identify a molecule
    Union of two or more atoms of the same or different elements. 
  3. Identify a cell
    The structual and functional unit of all living things.
  4. Identify tissue 
    A group of cells with a common structure and function.
  5. Identify organ
    Composed of tissues functioning together for a specific task.
  6. Identify organ system
    Composed of several organs working together.
  7. Identify an organism
    An individual; complex individuals contain organ systems.
  8. Identify population
    Organisms of the same species in a particular area.
  9. Identify community
    Interacting populations in a particular area.
  10. Identify ecosystem
    A community plus the physical environment.
  11. Identify bioshpere
    Regions of the earh's crust, waters and atmosphere inhabitated by living things.
  12. What are the five characteristics living things must need in order to be considered living?
    • Living things must:
    • Acquire materials and energy
    • Maintain Homeostasis
    • Respond
    • Reproduce and develop
    • Have adaptations
  13. Explain Acuire materials and Energy...
    • Maintaining organization and conducting life-sustaining processes require an outside source of energy, defined as the capacity to do “work.”
    • Metabolism is all the chemical reactions that occur
    • in a cell.
    • The ultimate source of energy for nearly all life on Earth is the sun; plants and certain other organisms convert solar energy into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis.
  14. Explain homeostasis...
    1. All organisms must maintain a state of biological balance, or homeostasis.

    2. Temperature, moisture level, pH, etc. must be maintained within the tolerance range of the organism.

    3. In order to maintain homeostasis, body systems monitory internal conditions and make adjustments when needed.

    4. Organisms have intricate feedback and control mechanisms to maintain homeostatic balance.
  15. Explain Respond...
    1. Living things interact with the environment and with other living things.

    • 2. Response often results in movement of the organism (e.g., a plant bending toward the sun to capture solar energy, a
    • turtle withdrawing into its shell for safety, etc.).

    3. Responses help ensure survival of the organism and allow the organism to carry out its biological activities.

    4. The collective responses of an organism constitute the behavior of the organism.
  16. Explain Reproduce and develop...
    1. Reproduction is the ability of every organism to give rise to another organism like itself.

    2. Bacteria, protozoans, and other unicellular organisms can reproduce asexually by splitting in two (binary fission).

    • 3. Multicellular organisms often reproduce sexually, uniting sperm and egg, each from a different individual, resulting in
    • an immature individual that develops into the adult.

    4. The instructions for an organism’s organization and development are encoded in genes.

    5. Genes are comprised of long molecules of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid); DNA is the genetic code in all living things.

    • 6. Genes are passed on from generation to generations. Methods to ensure genetic variability  include random
    • combination of sperm and egg and mutations.
  17. Explain Have adaptations...
    • 1. Adaptations are modifications that make
    • organisms better able to function in an environment

    • 2. Evolution includes changes in organisms to
    • better adapt to their environment over long periods of time. 
  18. What is Taxonimy?
    The discipline of identifying and grouping organisms according to certain rules.
  19. What is Systematics?
    The study of the evolutionary relationships between organisms.
  20. Identify the sequence of classification categories...
    • From high to low:
    • Domain 
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order 
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species

    • Dumb Kings Play Cards On Fat Gold Spiders
    • *Remember order*
  21. What does Biochemical evidence suggest?
    There are three domains: Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.
  22. Explain bacteria, archaea and eukarya...
    1. The domains Bacteria and Archaea contain unicellular prokaryotes; organisms in the domain Eukarya are eukaryotes that have a membrane-bound nucleus.

    2. The prokaryotes are structurally simple but are metabolically complex.

    3. Archaea can live in water devoid of oxygen, and are able to survive harsh environmental conditions (temperatures, salinity, pH).

    4. Bacteria are adapted to live almost anywhere (water, soil, atmosphere, in/on the human body, etc.).

    5. The domains Archaea and Bacteria are not yet categorized into kingdoms.

    6. Eukarya contains four kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.

    7. Protists (kingdom Protista) range from unicellular forms to multicellular forms.

    8. Plants (kingdom Plantae) are multicellular photosynthetic organisms.

    9. Fungi (kingdom Fungi) are the molds and mushrooms.

    10. Animals (kingdom Animalia) are multicellular organisms that ingest and process their food.

    • 11. Bionomial nomenclature refers to a two-part
    • scientific name: the genus (first word, capitalized) and the specific epithet of a species (second word, not capitalized).

    12. Binomial names are based on Latin and are used universally by biologists.
  23. What is Natural Selection?
    The process by which species become modified over time.

    1. In natural selection, members of a species may inherit a enetic change that makes them better suited to a particular environment.

    2. These members would be more likely to produce higher numbers of surviving offspring.
  24. Explain how Biosphere is organized...
    1. The biosphere is the zone of air, land, and water where organisms exist.

    2. A population consists of all members of one species in a particular area.

    3. A community consists of all of the local interacting populations.

    • 4. An ecosystem includes all aspects of a
    • living community and the physical environment (soil, atmosphere, etc.).

    5. Interactions between various food chains make up a food web.

    6. Ecosystems are characterized by chemical cycling and energy flow.

    7. Ecosystems stay in existence because of a constant input of solar energy and the ability of photosynthetic organisms to absorb it.
  25. Explain the human poplation...
    The human population modifies existing ecosystems which can upset their natural nutrient cycles, causing harm to human populations and disrupting the ecosystem’s natural energy flow.
  26. Explain biodiversity...
    1. Two biologically diverse ecosystems, rain forests and coral reefs, are severely threatened by the human population. 

    2. Destruction of healthy ecosystems has unintended effects including: loss of food, medicine, raw materials, and extinction of organisms.

    • 3. Biodiversity is the total number of species, their
    • variable genes, and their ecosystems.

    4. Extinction is the death of a species or larger group; perhaps 400 species become extinct every day.

    5. The continued existence of the human species is dependent on the preservation of ecosystems and the biosphere.
  27. What are the five parts of The Scientific Process?
    • Observation
    • Hypothesis
    • Experiment/Observations
    • Conclusion
    • Scientific Theory
  28. Explain Observation...
    1. Scientists believe nature is orderly and measurable, and that natural laws (e.g., gravity) do not change with time.

    2. Natural events, called phenomena, can therefore be understood from observations.

    3. Scientists also use the knowledge and experiences of other scientists to expand their understanding of phenomena.

    4. Chance alone can sometimes help a scientist get an idea (e.g., Alexander Fleming’s discovery of penicillin).
  29. Explain Hypothesis...
    1. Inductive reasoning allows a person to combine isolated facts into a cohesive whole.

    2. A scientist uses inductive reasoning to develop a possible explanation (a hypothesis) for a natural event; the scientist presents the hypothesis as an actual statement.

    • 3. Scientists only consider hypotheses that can be tested (i.e., moral and religious beliefs may not be testable by the
    • scientific method).
  30. Explain Experiments/Observations...
    1. Testing a hypothesis involves either conducting an experiment or making further observations.

    2. Deductive reasoning involves “if, then” logic to make a prediction that the hypothesis can be supported by experimentation.

    3. An experimental design is proposed to test the hypothesis in a meaningful way.

    4. An experiment should include a control group which goes through all the steps of an experiment but lacks (or is not exposed to) the factor being tested.
  31. Explain Conclusion...
    1. Whether the data support or reject the hypothesis is the basis for the conclusion.

    2. The conclusion of one experiment can lead to the hypothesis for another experiment.

    3. Scientists report their findings in scientific journals so that their methodology and data are available to other scientists.

    4. The experiments and observations must be repeatable or the research is suspect.
  32. Explain Dependent Variable...
    The result is called the responding (dependent) variable because it is due to the dependent variable.
  33. Explain Independent Variable...
    A controlled study ensures that the outcome is due to the experimental (independent) variable, the factor being tested.