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Rounded end of a bone that articulates with another bone.
Fine channels that the lacunae extend as. Reaches nearby lacunae & the haversian canal.
- Form a protective cage around the heart and lungs. Aid in respiration.
- (compact bone)
- Collectively: haversian-canal, lamellae, lacunae and Volkmann's canal.
- Extend to haversian canals at right angles and connect one haversian to another.
- Also carry nerves, blood & lymphatic vessels.
The "process" on the humerus.
Processes on the vertebrae
Bony material plates found in bone marrow cavity.
Trabeculae (type of cancellous bone)
Natural opening or passageway through a bone.
pelvis (os coxae) is divided into what 3 main regions?
- 1.ilium - cranial most bone
- 2.ischium - caudal most done
- 3.pubis - smallest bone
"Atlas" - Wide and flattened vertebrae, supports the head.
"Axis" - Major pivot point of the head.
Skulls are organized into what 2 areas?
- 1. Cranial Cavity - Where the brain is located.
- 2. Facial Bones - Makeup the nose, jaw and eye sockets.
Thoracic Vertebrae: short bones with large spinous processes.
How many thoracic vertebrae do carnivores, cows & sheep have?
How many thoracic vertebrae do horses have?
How many thoracic vertebrae do pigs have?
Either 14 or 15
Each bone layer of compact bone-
Bone that lies medially on the ventral surface of the thorax
Sternum, also known as "Xyphoid Process"
what does the sternum (xyphoid process) do?
Helps protect contents of chest; aids in breathing process
- pivot point for humerus. flat, triangular bone
Spine of scapula
- ridge that projects laterally the length of the bone
- Attaches some shoulder muscles.
upper limb, connects to radius and ulna. Serves as place of attachment for muscles
- Long bones lying side by side
- Are numbered 1-5 from most medial to most lateral.
- Connect carpal bones to the digits (or toes).
Small, somewhat cuboidal cones that form much of the carpus (or wrist).
- Located in the foreleg
- In humans, dogs,cats and pigs they are distinct bones.
- In other animals like ruminants they are partially or completely fused.
- (cancellous bone)
- Spine-like pieces of bony material.
- Arranged along lines of stress and force (as is the trabeculae),
What is the function of the vertebrae?
Act as support for the body and protects the spinal cord.
What are Lacunae?
- (compact bone)
- small spaces interspersed between the lamellae where osteocytes reside.
Space in the center of tube, thru which blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves travel through compact bone.
What are the two forms of bone structure?
- 1. Compact Bone - Found in outer portions of bone. Route through which blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves travel.
- 2. Cancellous Bone - Provides framework upon which bone marrow can perform its function (trabeculae & spincules)
various projections and bumps found on bones
Concave depression in a bone. Muscles are usually found in these areas.
- 'Pelvic Area"
- Attaches firmly to R&L ilium of the pelvis.
- Looks like one bone but is formed from the fusion of several vertebrae.
In dogs, how many bones make up the sacrum?
In pigs, sheet and goats how many bones make up the sacrum?
In horses and cows, how many bones make up the sacrum?
A flat, articular surface
Head of a bone-
- A rounded articulated surface on the end of a long bone
- (the humerus has one)
Surface that forms a joint and contracts with another bone (covered with Hyaline cartilage)
Scroll-like whirls of bone that divide each nasal cavity.
How is the right lung divided into lobes in most animals?
How is the right lung divided into lobes in the horse?
All one lobe + accessory lobe
How is the left lung divided into lobes in most animals?
cranial lobe & caudal lobe
What are small nodular bones near a joint called?
What we call our ankle. In a four-legged animal, it is refered to as "the hock"
- Almost exactly the same as metacarpal bones.
- there are usually only 4 digits, so usually only 4 metatarsal bones.
- Metatarsals II-V
Long-bone of the thigh
Main weight-bearing bone of the lower leg
Thin but complete bone in dogs and cats that parallels the tibia
Individual bones that make up the digits.
Phalanges (singular phalanx)
Lower back vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae: have long transverse processes
how many lumbar vertebrae do cats and dogs have?
how many lumbar vertebrae do horses and cows usually have?
how many lumbar vertebrae do goats, pigs and sheet usually have?
either 6 or 7
- Coccygeal Vertebrae
- make up animals' tails
- Vary in number depending on the size of the animal's tail
the two internal nares that open from the nasal chambers into the roof of the mouth (link the mouth and the nasal chambers)
The enlargement of the trachea above the sternum is called the _____ in avians.
Syrinx: essentially the voicebox of birds. Contains muscles, air sacs, and vibrating membranes