biological psych chap1-3

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biological psych chap1-3
2012-09-23 17:00:35
biological psych

biological psychology
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  1. given this universe composed of matter and energy, why is there such a thing as consciousness?
    hard problem
  2. what is the relationship between mental experience and brain activity?
    mind-brain problem
  3. the study of physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience
    biological psychology
  4. relating a behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs
    physiological explanation
  5. reconstructs the evolutionary history of a structure or behavior
    evolutionary explanation
  6. describes why a structure or behavior evolved as it did
    functional explanation
  7. strands of genes
  8. deoxyribonucleic acid
  9. biological catalysts that regulate chemical reactions in the body
  10. genes that are present in both sexes, generally on autosomal chromosomes, but active mainly in one sex
    sex-limited genes
  11. genetic inability to metabolize the amino acid phenylaline
  12. idea that if you exericse your arm mucles, your children will be born with bigger arm muscles, and if you fail to use your little toes, your children's little toes will be smaller than yours
    Lamarckian evolution
  13. the number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations
  14. action that benefits someone other than the actor
    altruistic behavior
  15. selection for a gene that benefits the individual's relatives
    kin selection
  16. receive information and trasmit it to other cells
  17. structure that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment
  18. structure that contains the chromosomes
  19. structure that performs metabolic activities
  20. sites at which the cell synthesizes new protein molecules
  21. network of thin tubes that transport newly synthesized proteins to other locations
    endoplasmic reticulum
  22. has its soma in the spinal cord
    motor neuron
  23. specialized at one end to be highly sensitive to a partiular type of stimulation
    sensory neuron
  24. short outgrowths that increase the surface areal available for synapses
  25. dendritic spines
  26. contains the nucleus, ribosomes, and mitochondria
    cell body/soma
  27. point form which the axon releases chemicals that cross through the junction between one neuron and the next
    presynaptic terminal
  28. brings info into a structure
    afferent axon
  29. carries info away form a structure
    efferent axon
  30. a cell's dendrites and axon are entirely contained within a single cell
  31. interneuron/ intrinsic neuron
  32. protein mediated process that expends energy to pump chemicals form the blood into the brain
    active transport
  33. different electrical charge between the inside and outside of the cell
    electrical gradient
  34. the difference in voltage in a resting neuron
    resting potential
  35. protein complex that repeatedly transports three sodium ions out of the cell while drawing two potassium ions into it
    sodium-potassium pump
  36. difference in distribution of ions across the membrane
    concentration gradient
  37. messages sent by axons
    aciton potentials
  38. increased polarization
  39. their permeability depends on the voltage difference across the membrane
    voltage-gated channels
  40. the amplitude and velocity of an ation potential are independent of the intesnity of the stimulus that initiated it, provided that the stilulus reaches the threshold
    all-or-none law
  41. immediately after an action potential during which it resists the prodution of further action potentials
    refractory period
  42. membrane cannot produce an action potential, regardless of stimulation
    absolute refractory period
  43. a stronger than usual stimulus is necessary to initiate an action potential
    relative refractory period
  44. a swelling where the axon exits the soma
    axon hillock
  45. the transmission of an action potential down an axon
  46. proagation of the action potential
  47. insulating material composed of fats and proteins
  48. the jumping of action potentials from node to node
    saltatory conduction
  49. when a local neuron receives info from other neurons: a membrane potential that varies in magnitude in proportion to the intensity of the stimulus
    graded potential
  50. specialized gap between neurons 
  51. automatic muscular responses to stimuli
  52. circuit from sensory neuron to muscle response
    reflex arc
  53. repeated stimuli within a brief time have a cumulative effect
    temporal summation
  54. delivers transmission
    presynaptic neuron
  55. receives transmission
    postsynaptic neuron
  56. results from a flow of sodium ions into the neuron
    excitatory postsynaptic potential
  57. occurs when synaptic input selectively opens the gates for potassium ions to leave the cell or for chloride ions to enter the cell
    inhibitory postsynaptic potential
  58. periodic production of action potentials even without synaptic input
    spontaneous firing rate
  59. corresponding to the brief on/off effects that Sherrington and Eccles studied
    ionotropic effects