brain tumors

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brain tumors
2012-11-13 20:28:19
brain tumors

brain tumors
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  1. fibrillary astrocytoma
    • grey/white matter junction in cerebral hemisphere
    • invasive growth of well-differentiated astrocytes
    • mean survival 6-8 yrs
  2. glioblastoma multiforme
    • most common malignant adult CNS tumor
    • invasive growth (butteryfly pattern) crosses the corpus callosum
    • pseudopalisading (line of cells surrounding an area of necrosis), high mitotic activity
    • mean survival 1 yr, very poor prognosis
  3. pilocytic astrocytoma
    • most common benign CNS tumor of children
    • cerebellum
    • well demarcated
    • cystic lesion with a mural node (node growing on the wall of the cyst)
    • pilocytic astrocytes, rosenthal fibers (thick eosinophilic processes of astrocytes) 
    • very good prognosis b/c well demarcated
  4. oligodendroglioma
    • malignant tumor of the oligodendrocytes
    • older pts
    • frontal lobe, may present with seizures
    • fried egg appearence, calcifications(can be diagnosed by x ray), chicken wire capillary pattern (anastamosing capillary network)
  5. ependymoma
    • children - 4th ventricle
    • adults - spinal cord
    • well circumscribed, epithelial-like cells arranged in perivascular pseudorosettes (around a capillary) and true rosettes (around empty space)
    • causes obstructive hydrocephalus
    • mean survival 4 yrs
  6. medulloblastoma
    • malignant tumor derived from the granular cells of the cerebellum (neuroectoderm)
    • ataxia + headaches and seizures
    • cerebellar vermis
    • small blue round cell tumor
    • homer wright rosettes around a central fibrillary core
  7. menigioma
    • most common benign tumor in adults F>M 
    • benign tumor of the arachnoid cells
    • never grows inside the brain
    • nodule compresses the underlying brain tissue without invasion
    • spindle shaped cells, whorls, psammoma bodies
  8. primary CNS lymphoma
    • young and middle aged adults
    • deep white matter, relatively well circumscribed nodule with central necrosis
    • angiocentric pattern - cells accumulate around blood vessels
    • very poor prognosis
    • associated with EBV infection
  9. dermoid cyst
    lined by squamous epithelium and filled with keratin, often in the temporal region
  10. colloid cyst
    • 3rd ventricle, solitary cysts lined by columnar epithelium, filled with mucoid material
    • commonly produce hydrocephalus by blocking the foramen of monro