Social Psychology Test 1

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Social Psychology Test 1
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2012-09-23 21:14:38
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social psychology westmont saad psych
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test 1
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  1. social psychology
    The scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people
  2. Goals of Social Psych
    To understand what happens in the minds of individuals when various influences come into conflict with one another
  3. Different from Personality Psych
    Personality psychologists just look at individual differences in human personalities as opposed to group influence
  4. Different from Sociology
    Provides general laws and theories about societies with no focus on individual 
  5. Social Influence
    The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior 
  6. Examples of Social Influence
    Heaven’s gate, Jonestown, Waco mass murders
  7. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people’s behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors, and to underestimate the role of situational factors
  8. Basic Research
    studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question and are conducted for reasons of intellectual curiosity 
  9. Applied Research
    studies designed to solve a particular social problem 
  10. Empirical Research
    Indirect experience/gathering data through the senses
  11. Basic Human Motives
    • The need to feel good about ourselves
    • The need to be accurate
  12. Observational Research Method
    Researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
  13. Correlational Research Method
    The technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them is assessed
  14. Pros of Correlational
    examines how variables are naturally related, can make a prediction about one from the other
  15. Cons of Correlational
    a third variable not being measured could be influencing results, cannot infer causation 
  16. Experimental Research Method
    Researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable (the one thought to have a causal effect on people’s responses) 
  17. Experimental Pros
    Highly controlled, highly accurate, can imply causation
  18. Experimental Cons
    may not occur in the real world, there could be confounding variables not measured
  19. Good Theories
    are falsifiable, objective, and generate hypotheses 
  20. Self-Report Surveys
    not necessarily very accurate because of the potential for self-presentation bias but can be easy to get large amounts of data and be very descriptive 
  21. Correlational Coefficient
    number (.0-1) representing how closely related two variables are
  22. third variable problem 
    there’s always a possibility that an unmeasured third variable is playing into a situation
  23. Random Assignment
    Ensures that any pre-existing differences between research participants are distributed evenly across conditions 
  24. Bystander Effect
    individuals do not offer any means of help in an emergency situation to the victim when other people are present
  25. Statistically Significant
    a result that probably did not occur by chance, suggesting that it is reliable and would happen again if the study were repeated 
  26. Generalizability
    the degree to which a measurement or result of an experiment applies to other tests, situations, or people
  27. Reliability
    extent to which scores on the measure are stable and replicable 
  28. Validity
    do scores measure what they say they will
  29. Social Cognition
    How individuals think about themselves and the social world, including their selection, interpretation, and use of social information 
  30. Characteristics of Automatic Thinking
    non-conscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
  31. Schemas
    Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects that influence the information people notice, think about, and remember 
  32. Availability Heuristic
    a mental rule whereby people base a judgment on the ease with which they can bring something to mind 
  33. Representativeness Heuristic
    a mental shortcut whereby people classify something according to how similar it is to a typical case
  34. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    People have an expectation about what another is like which influences how they act toward that person which causes that person to behave consistently with people’s original expectations, making the expectation come true 
  35. Priming
    The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait, or concept
  36. attributions
    ideas or beliefs about the cause of certain behaviors 
  37. Framing
    presenting something as either positive or negative
  38. Counterfactual Thinking
    Mentally changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been 
  39. Thin Slicing
    ability to find patterns in events based solely on narrow windows of experience
  40. Snap Judgments
    first impressions
  41. Nonverbal communication
    The way people communicate (intentionally or not) without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position, movement, touch, and gaze 
  42. Universality of Communication
    six major emotions can be understood on the face across cultures (anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, and sadness) 
  43. Cultural Emblems
    nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture that usually have direct verbal translations 
  44. Implicit Personality Theories
    a type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together; for example, many people believe that someone who is kind is generous as well

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