Bio Ch. 1

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mgarsteck
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172889
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Bio Ch. 1
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2012-09-23 21:27:54
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  1. What is a Cell?
    • The basic unit of life.
    • All cells come from pre-existing cells.
  2. What is a Cytoplasm?
    Semi-fluid portion inside the cell that contains organelles
  3. Which type of cell has membrane bound organelles?
    Eukaryotic
  4. Which cell does not contain a Nucleus?
    Prokaryotic
  5. What are the cylinders of protein molecules present in cytoplasm, centrioles, cilia, and flagella?
    Microtubules
  6. What is an Intermediate Filament?
    Protein fibers that provide support and strength.
  7. What is a function of the Cytoskeleton?
    Maintains cell shape and assists movement of cell parts
  8. What is a centriole?
    Short cylinders of microtubules of unknown function
  9. What is a centrisome?
    Microtubule organizing center that contains a pair of centrioles.
  10. What is a Lysosome?
    Vesicle that digests macromolecules and even cell parts.
  11. What is a Cytoplasm?
    Semifluid matrix outside of nucleus that contains organelles?
  12. What is the Plasma Membrane?
    Outer surface that regulates entrance and exit of molecules.
  13. What makes up the content of the Nucleus?
    Nuclear Envelope: Double membrane with nuclear pores that encloses the nucleus.

    Chromatin: Diffuse threads containing DNA and Protein

    Nucleolus: REgion that produces subunits of ribosomes
  14. What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
    Smooth ER - Lacks ribosomes but synthesizes lipid molecules.

    Rough ER - Studded with ribosomes, processes proteins.
  15. What is a Ribosome?
    Particles that carry out protein synthesis.
  16. What is a mitochondrion?
    Organelle that carries out cellular respiration, producing ATP molecules.
  17. What is a Polyribosome?
    String of ribosomes that simultaneously synthesizing the same protein.
  18. What is the Golgi Apparatus?
    • Processes, packages and secretes modified cell products.
    • Process, Package and deliver proeins and lipids from the ER
  19. What is Diffusion?
    Random movement of molecules from a higher concentration to a lower concentration.
  20. What is Osmosis?
    Diffusion of water molecules.
  21. What is facilitated transport?
    When a protein carrier transports molecules across the plasma membrane from higher concentration to lower concentration
  22. What is active transport?
    When a protein carrier transports molecules from a lower to a higher concentration.

    Uses ATP as energy.
  23. What is Endocytosis?
    When the plasma membrane invaginated around a particle and traps the particle in a vesicle as it enters the cell.
  24. What is exocytosis?
    A vesicle that fuses with the plasma membrane releasing molecules to the outside of the cell.
  25. Where in the Nucleus are the RNA components of ribosomes produced?
    Nucleoli.
  26. What is the Rough ER?
    Studded with ribosomes used to make proteins.
  27. What is the Smooth ER?
    Lacks ribosomes but aids in makring carbohydrates and lipids.
  28. What is a Cytoskeleton made of?
    Large Microtubules.

    Thin Actin Filaments

    Medium Sized intermediate filaments.
  29. What does an Adhesion Junction do?
    Mechanically attach adjacent cells
  30. What is a Tight Junction?
    Connections beetween the plasma membrane proteins of neighboring cells produce a zipper like barrier.
  31. What is a Gap Junction?
    Communication portals between cells.
  32. What is the function of the Mitochondria?
    Organelles in the Cell that can transfer the energy glucose to produce ATP.
  33. What are Enzymes?
    Proteins that facilitate chemical reactions.

    Are specific to what substrate they work on.

    Have action sites where a substrate binds, providing a platform for the reaction occur and then release the product.

    Are recycled.
  34. What is Cellular Respiration?
    The enzymatic breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide and water.
  35. What is the Plasma Membrane and what is its function?
    A phosopholipid bilayer.

    Selectively regulates the passage of molecules and ions into and out of the cell.

    Embedded proteins allowing certain substances to cross the plasma membrane.
  36. Where does protein synthesis occur?
    Rough ER, Ribosomes (Composed of proteins and rRNA)
  37. What organelle produces ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    Nucleolis.
  38. What does the endomembrane system consist of?
    Nuclear Envelope.

    Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    Golgi Apparatus.

    Lysosomes.

    Vesicles
  39. What produces Lysosomes?
    Golgi Apparatus.
  40. What type of Cellular Respiration happens when oxygen is not present?
    Fermentation.

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