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minimum requirements of public health
- 1. effective government regulations
- 2. use of appropriate technologies and facilities
- 3. effective enforcement
________ and ________ ensure the protection of public health
public education and participation
developed: supply and qlty? WBD rate?
developed: supply and quality of water sources are well (versus not well) regulated to limit pollution. waterborne disease rate is low. waterborne disease rate is low.
developing--water contaminated with pathogens cause high rates of preventable water-borne disease
global estimation of diarrheal diseaseases..
in the next 15 minutes...
annually: ___ causes of diarrheal disease
annually: ______ deaths due to diarrheal disease
diarrheal disease realted to:
- in the next 15 minutes...a child will die from diarrheal-related disease
- annually: __6-60 billion_ causes of diarrheal disease
- annually: 2-3 million deaths due to diarrheal
diarrheal disease related to:
- 1. unsanitary excreta disposal
- 2. poor personal and domestic hygiene
- 3. unsafe drinking water
guidelines for developing safe drinking water act (SDWA)
1. everyone is...
2. SDWA must be...
3. public water facilities...
- 1. everyone is at risk for --sewage is a source of water borne pathogens
- 2. SDWA must be stringent to protect public health
- 3. public water facilities-first right to best sources of water which is protected from other users
Water facts: (3)
1. a human can...
2. about 2/3 of the human...
3. the average requirement for...
- 1) a human can live up to a month without food but can survive for about a week without water
- 2) about 2/3 of the human body is made up of water
- 3) average requireent for human consumption of water per day is 2.5 litres
average person uses ___ gallons of water per day in the US
100 gallons of water per day (400 liters)
average residence uses over ________ gallons during a _____ _____
average residence uses over 100,000 gallons during a typical year
most of the household water (_____%) is used for ____ _______ such as ________ and _________
most of the household water (50-70%) is used for outdoor purposes such as watering lawns and washing cars
is untreated water (i.e. raw water) used to produce drinking water
all water on the surface (e.g. lakes, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, and oceans) as distinguished from subsurface or ground water.
water that is contained in the inter-connected pores in an aquifer
** ground water under the direct influence of surface water
- any water beneath the surface of the ground with substantial occurence of insects or other macro-organisms, algae, or large-diameter pathogens (e.g. giardia intestinalis or cryptospordium), or substantial and relatively rapid shifts in water characteristics (e.g. turbidity temperature, conductivity, or PH). that closely correlate with climatilogic or surface water conditions.
- -direct influence must be determined for individual sources in accordance with criteria determined by the state.
a layer or section of the earth or rock that contains feshwater, known as ground water (any water that is stored naturally underground or that flows through rock or soil, supplying springs and wells.
Fresh water lakes
most freshwater lakes are located _________, with over ______ of the world's lakes in ______ alone
most freshwater lakes are located at high altitudes, with over 50% of the world's lakes in Canada alone
Fresh water lakes
many lakes especially those in _____ regions become _____ through _______, which concentrates the inflowing _______
many lakes especially those in arid regions become salty through evaporation, which concentrates the inflowing salts
ex: Caspian sea, Dead seas, Great Salt Lake
Salt water: __%
Fresh water: ___ %
only ___ is available for use
- Salt water: 97.5%
- Fresh water: 2.5 %
- only 0.01 is available for use
aticficial lakes, produced by constructing physical barriers across flowing rivers which allow the water to pool and be used for various purposed. the volume of water stored in reservoirs is estimated at 4,286km3
glaciers and icecaps
1. cover about ____% of the world's ________
2. These are concentrated in _____ and ______ and contain ___% of the World's freshwater-
3. but many of these resources are __________
- glaciers and icecaps cover about 10% of the world's land mass
- -these are concentrated in Greenland and Antartica and contain 70% of the World's freshwater
- -unfortunately many of these resources are not readily accessible for human use
hydrological (water) cycle:
__% returns directly to the __
the natural water cycle by which water evaporates from oceans and other water bodies, accumulates as water vapor in clouds, and returns to oceans and other water bodies as precipitations
90% returns directly to the ocean
freshwater that is....
freshwater that is continuously replenished by the hydrological cycle for withdrawal within reasonable time limits, such as water in rivers, lakes or reserviors that fill from precipitation or from run-off
the renewability of a water source depends on both __ and ___
the renewability of a water source depends on both its natural rate of replenishment and the rate at which the water is withdrawn for human use
1. water in _____and other _________ that... is not ______________or is _________
..more than ___ of ____ water is ______
- water in aquifers and other natrual reservoirs that... is not recharged by the hydrological cycle or is recharged so slowly that significant withdrawal for human use causes depletion
- -fossil aquifers are in this category.
- -more than 3/4 of the underground water is non-renewable
- water orginating a precipitation on land that then runs off the land into rivers, streams and lankes, eventually reaching the oceans, inland seas or aquifers, unless it evaporates first
- -non-point source
-that portion of the runoff that can relied on year after year and easily reused by human beings
water withdrawal (book not notes)
- removal of freshwater for human use from any natural source or reservoir, such as a lake, river, or aquifer--
- --if not consumed, the water may return to the environment and can be used again
1. a country faces water scarcity when
2. can expect to experience
1. a country faces water scarcity when its annual supply of renewanble freshwater is less than 1,000 cubic meters per person.
2. can expect to experience chronic widespread shortages of water that hinder their development.
1. country faces water stress when..
2. can expect to...
1. country faces water stress when its annual supply of renewable freshwater is between 1,000 and 1,700 meters per person.
2. such countries can expect to experience temporary or limited water shortages.
regions that are facing water scarcity and water stress:
2 sections of the world that are currently...
two sections of the world that are currenlty having severe water shortages are also experiencing some of the highest population growth rates around the world.
- water scarcity: africa and near east
- water stress: china
although the earth's surface (about ___% water) is covered largely by water, most of this water is _____
although the earth's surface (about 70% water) is covered largely by water, most of this water is unusable ocean water
Water Availability Facts:
1. although the earths surface about 70 % is covered largely by eater, most of this water is unusable.
2. . approx ___% of all water is fresh--the majority is _____
3. the remaining _% or readily acceptable water comes from surface freshwater sources like _____
- 1. as is.
- 2. approx 3% of all water is fresh--the majority is unavailable for human use
- 3. the remaining 1% or readily acceptable water comes from surface freshwater sources like lakes, rivers and shallow underground water aquifers.
wetlands includes swamps, bogs, marshes, mires, lagoons, and floodplains.
earth's 10 largest wetlands
- 1. West Siberian Lowlands (Russian)
- 2. Amazon river (south america)
- 3. Hudson bay lowlands (in Canada)
- 4. Pantanal (mid south afterica)
- 5. upper nile river, chari logone-river (in Africa)
- 6. Hudson Bay lowlands in the South Pacific
- 7. Congo River (Central Africa)
- 8. Upper MacKenzie River (in Northwestern Canada)
- 9. North American praire potholes (wetlands made up of shallow depressions in the nothern Great Plains
Strategy of Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to Protect Public Health:
4. establish ____ and ____ standard
5. if there is no....
- 1. identify all pollutants associated with water-borne health effects
- 2. establish MCLG for each pollutant
- 3. determine minimum level treatment
- 4. establish MCL and WQ standard
- 5. if there is no feasible method to measure a pollutant, use a treatment requirement
**MCLG are non-enforceable, ideal health goals
- Maximum contaminant level goal-
- the level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known adverse human health and allows for a margin of safety.
2. implement regulation by
3. if comtaminant cannot be...
- maximum level contaminant
- 1. the highest level of a contaminant allowed in drinking water and enforced by regulations.
- 2. implement by monitoring for contaminant.
- 3. if contaminant (pathogen) cannot be monitored for, measure for indicator bacteria (coliform) and set treatment requirements (filtration, disinfection).
strategies to prevent WBD
- 1. use protected water sources
- 2. prevent fecal contamination
- 3. treat and disinfect finished water
- 4. monitor water to meet water quality standard (such as absences f fecal bacteria (total coliform)
fecal bacteria for potable water standards:
3. method of assay:
- 1. pathogens-to many too difficult to assay-- use indicators instead.
- 2. total coliform- highest concentration in sewage and is used as indicator or marker of sewage contamination.
- 3. method of assay- feasible and economical for monitoring laboratory.
waterborne disease (book only)
conditions that are transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated water and water acts as the passive carrier or the infectious agent.
total coliform rule (TCR):
1. if a sample tests positive...
2. presence of ... is evidence og recent... and risk of...
3. violation of WQ results in...
4. TCR is currently...
- 1. if sample positive for total coliform must be analyzed for presecence of fecal coliform (e coli)
- 2. prescence of fecal coliform or E. coli is evidence of recent fecal contamination and risk of fecal borne pathogen
- 3. violation of WQ standard:
- -additional sampling
- public notification
- 4. the TCR currently undergoing revision due to evidence of unrelatedness to health effect
treatment of water for residential consumption
water suppleid to the public in the US undergoes treatment in order to meet quality standrad set by the EPA for safe levels of chemical contaminants and waterborne microrganisms.
the four stages of water treatment in most plants
- 1. coagulation-removes suspended particles (removesdirt by adding ali and other chemicals that stick to the dirt and settle to the bottom
- 2. sedimentation
- 3. filtration
- 4. disinfection
1. coagulation-removes suspended particles (removes dirt by adding alum and other chemicals that stick to the dirt and settle to the bottom-the combined weight of dirt and floc become heavy enough to settle during sedimentation
removes the smaller particles-heavy particles settle to the bottom of tanks-and the clearer water moves onto filtration
water passes through filters of sand gravel, charcoal to remove dirt
kills bateria and microrganisms- small amount of chlorine is added or some other method is used to kill any other bacteria that may be in the water.
placed in closed tank or reservior
treatment of water from aquifers...
1. for high quality water from aquifers, _____, _____ and ________ are necessary
2. in some cases water from aquifers is ____from ___ but undesirable because of____ and _______ that impact the ______ ______
3. this is made potable through a process of _____that uses ______ _______
- 1. for high quality water from aquifers, minimal aeration, filtration and disinfection are necessary
- 2. in some cases water from aquifers is free from microrganisms but undesirable for human consumption because of impurities and coloration that impact the aesthetic qualities
- 3. this is made potable through a process of filtration that uses ultrafine filters
water that flows across the ground
potential contaminants include:
- 1. chemicals and nutrients (e.g. fertilzers and nitrates from agricultural lands)
- 2. rubber, heavy, metals, sodium (from roads)
- 3. petroleum byproducts and organic chemicals (from dry cleaners, service stations, and leaking underground storgae tanks
- 4. microbial pathogens (from human and animals wastes)
More potential contaminants
- 1. chemical used in home (solvents, paints, used motor oil, lead and copper
- 2. heavy metals and toxic chemicals (from factories)
Waterborne diseases are a probem for the ...
they often cause... which is
- 1.Waterborne diseases are a probem for the developing world
- 2.gastroenteritis- inflamation of the stomach and small and large intestine
Public Health regulations: Key to public health
- 1. public health is a government (federal and state responsibility
- 2. effective government regulations, use of appropriate technologies and facilities as well as effective enforcement are minimum reguirements to protect public health.
- 3. public education and participation ensure protection of public health
examples of water borne pathogens
- 1. enteric protozoal parasites (entamoeba)
- 2. bacterial enteropathogens (salmonella)
- 3. viral pathogens (enteroviruses)
- 4. other agents
Pathogens in Feces: causes of most water-borne diseases
- 1. small protazoa
- 2. bacteria
- 3. virus
some chemicals that have been reported to cause adverse health effects:`
- 1. aluminum
- 2. arsenic
- 3. disinfection by-products
- 4. flouride
- 5. lead
- 6. pesticides
- 7. radon
Pharmaceutical Sources of Water Contamination:
1. enter the water by..
2. examples include: ()
- Pharm and personal care product (PPCPs)
- 1. washed off or excreted from the body
- 2. examples include: analgesics, oral contraceptive agents, drugs for lowering cholesterol, and anticonvulsants.
Water disinfection by-products:
- 1. chemicals used to disinfect water include chlorine, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone
- 2. these chemicals are associated with by-products of chlorination called DBP
- 3. Chlorine is associated with trihalomethanes (THMs), which are among the most common and widely measured DBP.
Chlorination of Water and Risk of Birth Defects
associated with the ______
- Associated with frequency of late adverse pregnancy outcomes
- 1. congenital abomalties
- 2. other birth defects
- 3. still births
- 4. neonatal deaths
Beach and Coastal Pollution:
- 1. the approximately 1 billion people who live near costal areas cause great stress on costal ecosystems.
- 2. coastal areas are threatened by over-development, poor planning and economic expansion
- 3. world's coastal regions are the recipients of billions of gallons of treated and untreated wastewater.
Effects of Beach & Coastal Pollution
1. excessive amounts of .....
2. an anoxic ocean environment can...
3. urban runoff and ...
- 1. Excessive amounts of nutrients that enter the oceans may cause harmful blooms of algae, resulting in reduced levels of oxygen in the water (anoxic conditions)
- 2. an anoxic ocean environment can bring about fish kills and damage other forms of ocean life.
- 3. urban runoff and sewage contamination of the ocean expose swimmers to waterborne diseases
1. oil spills from tankers and...
on March 89
and April 2010
- 1. oil spills from tankers and off-shore drilling platforms can have a devaasting impact on the shoreline, aquatic life, mammals and birds.
- -on march 24, 1989 the tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground in Alaska and caused the largest old spill in us waters at the time
- -on April 20 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil platform exploded, causing history's largest accidental oil spill as of mid 2010.