# A ECL 371

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1. Laws of Association VS. Experiments (Chapter 2)
• Association (Descriptive)
• -Most Wildlife studies
• -Watching, Mointering

• Experiments
• -Test Hypothesis
• -Controlled Setting
2. Induction (Chapter 2)
Make generalization based on an individual observation

Ex: This Drake Mallard has a green head, so all drake Mallards have green heads
3. Deduction (Chapter 2)
Move from general premises to specific conclusions

Ex: All vertebrates breath oxygen. A bluegill is a vertebrate, so bluegill breathe oxygen.
4. Things to Consider when doing a Study. (Chapter 2)
1. Design and Desired Inference

2. Sample Size and Power

3. Data Collection

4. Data Analysis Methods

5. Evaluation and Interpretation

6. Speculation/ New Hypothesis
5. Six Main Sampling Designs (Chapter 2)
1. Simple Random

2. Systematic

3. Stratified Random (by habitat)

4. Cluster

6. Sequential
6. What is Bias? What is Precision? What are the 4 Types of Combinations for Bias and Percision (Chapter 2)
• -Bias - on or off the target
• -Precision - points grouped or ungrouped

1. Unbiased and Precise = Accurate

2. Unbiased but Not Precise = Not Accurate

3. Biased and Precise = Not Accurate

4. Biased and Not Precise = Not Accurate
7. Statistics Hypothesis Test (Chapter 2)
-Type I vs. Type II Errors
Null Hypothesis True-Reject Null Hypothesis = Type I Error

Null Hypothesis True-Fail to Reject Hypothesis = Correct

Null Hypothesis False-Reject Null Hypothesis = Correct

Null Hypothesis False-Fail to Reject Hypothesis = Type II Error
8. The 5 different Study Designs (Chapter 2)
1. Field Studies

2. Natural Experiments

3. Field Experiments

4. Laboratory Experiments

• 5. Integrated Research Process
•       -Combination of above
9. What are the Alternatives to Experimental Testing? (Chapter 2)
• - Regression and Linear Models
• - Model Building
• - Bayesian Statistics
 Author: mdonovan ID: 172932 Card Set: A ECL 371 Updated: 2012-09-24T04:35:57Z Folders: Description: A ECL 371 Exam 1 Show Answers: