AP Psych Development Test

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AP Psych Development Test
2012-09-24 00:58:28

Chapter 4
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  1. zygote:
    • First stage
    • 0-2 weeks
  2. embryo:
    • Second stage
    • 2 wks- 2 mos
    • stage which birth defects have their origin
  3. fetal:
    • Third and final stage
    • 2 mos+
  4. 2 views of development:
    • Stage
    • Continuity
  5. Stage Theories:
    there are distinct phases to intellectual and personality development
  6. Continuity theories:
    development is continuous
  7. Teratogens:
    agents (such as chemicals or viruses) that can reach the embryo during prenatal development and casue harm
  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS):
    • physical and cognitive abnormalities in children cause by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking
    • symptoms include misproportioned head
  9. Rooting:
    infant reflex when their cheek is touched, they turn their head and open their mouth in that direction
  10. Grasping:
    infant reflex when they curl their fingers around an object
  11. Stepping Reflex:
    infant reflex where they step when being held up and their feet touch a surface
  12. Moro:
    infant reflex where they throw their arms out, arch the back, and bring the arms together as if to hold on to something when the head's position is changed
  13. Babinski:
    infant reflex when they fan and curl their toes when the foot is stroked
  14. Habituation:
    decreased responsiveness with repeated stimulation
  15. Maturation:
    • biological growth process that enables orderly changes in behavior
    • relatively uninfluenced by experience
  16. Infantile Amnesia:
    why children and adults can't remember the first few months of life
  17. Motor Development:
    refers to the acquisition of abilities such as grasping, walking, skipping, and balancing
  18. Developmental Norms:
    timetable during infancy that helps doctors record motor development and spot possible problems
  19. Jean Piaget:
    • created Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
    • believed humans developed deliberate cognitive representations of their environment, which they could then manipulate
  20. Cognition:
    all the mental activities associated with thinking, remembering, and communicating
  21. Schema:
    a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
  22. Assimilation:
    interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas
  23. Accomodation:
    • changing one's understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info or experiences
    • ex: babies do this
  24. Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development:
    • 1. Sensorimotor
    • 2. Preoperational
    • 3. Concrete Operational
    • 4. Formal Operational 
  25. Sensorimotor:
    • Age: Birth- nearly 2 yrs
    • Description: experiencing the world through senses and actions
    • Developmental Phenomena: object permanence, stranger anxiety
  26. Preoperational:
    • Age: 2-6 yrs
    • Description: Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning
    • Developmental Phenomena: Pretend play, egocentrism, Language development
  27. Concrete Operational:
    • Age: 7-11 yrs
    • Description: Thinking logically about concrete events, grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
    • Developmental Phenomena: Conservation, mathematical tansformations
  28. Formal Operational:
    • Age: 12 through adulthood
    • Description: Abstract reasoning
    • Developmental Phenomena: Abstract logic, potential for moral reasoning
  29. Object Permanence:
    • the awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceivable.
    • ex: a blanket is placed over a toy, and the child picks up the blanket to get the toy
  30. Baby Mathematics:
    Shown a numerically impossible outcome, infants stare longer
  31. Stranger Anxiety:
    fear of strangers that infants commonly display beginning by about 8 months of age
  32. Egocentricism:
    the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view
  33. Conservation:
    • the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in forms of objects
    • 3 types: Length, number, and substance
  34. Theory of Mind:
    people's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
  35. Autism:
    • A disorder that appears in childhood
    • marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of other's states of mind
  36. Critique of Piaget's Theory
    • Underestimates children’s abilities
    • Overestimates age differences in thinking
    • Vagueness about the process of change
    • Underestimates the role of the social environment
    • Lack of evidence for qualitatively different stages
  37. Attachment: 
    Who studied it:
    • an emotional tie with another person
    • shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and displaying distress on separation

    Mary Ainsworth
  38. Seperation Anxiety:
    Emotional distress seen in many infants when separated from people with whom they have formed attachments.
  39. Critical Period:
    an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
  40. Imprinting:
    the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
  41. Children's Temperaments:
    • Easy—adaptable, positive mood, regular habits
    • Slow to warm up—low activity, somewhat slow to adapt, generally withdraw from new situations
    • Difficult—intense emotions, irritable, cry frequently
    • Average—unable to classify (1/3 of all children)
  42. Forms of Attachment:
    • 1.Securely attached: explores when mom present, upset and explores less when not present, shows pleasure when returns
    • 2.Insecurely attached: less likely to explore when mom present and may even cling to mom, cry loudly and remain upset when mom leaves and seem indifferent when she returns
    • 3.Avoidantly attached: child avoids mother and acts coldly to her when she returns
    • 4.Anxious resistant attachment: child remains close to mom and remains distressed despite her attempts to comfort
  43. Parenting Styles:
    • 1. Authoritarian
    • 2.Permissive
    • 3.Authoritative
    • 4. Rejecting-Neglecting
  44. Authoritarian:
    • strict, impose rules and expect obedience
    • why? because i said so
  45. Permissive:
    • opposite of authoritarian
    • make few demands, use little punishment
  46. Authoritative:
    • both demanding and responsive
    • set rules, explain reasons and encourage open discussion
    • what most parents aim for
  47. Rejecting-neglecting:
    • uninvolved 
    • expect little invest little
  48. Adolescence:
    the transition period from childhood to adulthood
  49. Puberty:
    the period of sexual maturation when a person becomes capable of reproduction
  50. Primary Sex Characteristics:
    • body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
    • ovaries--female
    • testes--male
    • external genitalia
  51. Secondary Sex Characteristics:
    • nonreproductive sexual characteristics
    • female--breast and hips
    • male--voice quality and body hair
  52. Menarche:
    first menstrual period
  53. Early Maturation Changes:
    • Boys: high self esteem, satisfied with physical appearance
    • Girls: low self esteem, dissatisfied with physical appearance, very self-conscious
  54. Late Maturation Changes:
    • Boys: low self esteem, dissatisfied with physical appearance, very self-conscious
    • Girls: high self esteem, satisfied with physical appearance
  55. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development:
    • assesses moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind people's answers
    • six stages
  56. Kohlberg's Moral Ladder Levels (3):
    • 1. Preconventional Level (younger than 6)
    • 2. Conventional Level (7 to 11)
    • 3. Postconventional Level (11+)
  57. Preconventional Level:
    • Morality of self-interest: to avoid punishment or gain concrete rewards
    • Stages 1-2: 
    • 1. Punishment and obedience orientation. Obey rules to avoid punishment.
    • 2. Naive hedonism. Conforms to get rewards and to have favors returned.
  58. Conventional Level:
    • Morality of law and social rules: to gain approval or avoid disapproval
    • Stages 3-4:
    • 3. Good boy/girl morality. Conforms to avoid disapproval or dislike by others.
    • 4. Conforms to avoid censure by authorities.
  59. Postconventional Level:
    • Morality of abstract principles: to affirm agreed-upon rights and personal ethical principles
    • Stages 5-6:
    • 5. Conforms to maintain communities. Emphasis on individual rights. 
    • 6. Individual purposes of conscience.
  60. Erik Erikson:
    created Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development (8 stages)
  61. 8 stages of Erikson's Psychosocial Development (first 4):
    • 1. Trust vs Mistrust
    • 2. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
    • 3. Initiative vs Guilt
    • 4. Competance vs Inferiority
  62. 8 stages of Erikson's Psychosocial Development (last 4):
    • 5. Identity vs Role Confusion
    • 6. Intimact vs Isolation
    • 7. Generativity vs Stagnation
    • 8. Integrity vs Despair
  63. 1. Trust vs Mistrust
    • Age: Infancy (1st year)
    • Description of Task: If needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust.
  64. 2. Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
    • Age: Toddler (2nd year)
    • Description: Toddlers learn to exercise will and do things for themselves, or they will doubt their abilities.
  65. 3. Initiative vs Guilt
    • Age: Preschooler (3-5)
    • Description:  Preschoolers learn to initiate tasks and carry out plans, or they feel guilty about efforts to be independent.
  66. 4. Competence vs Inferiority
    • Age: Elementary (6 years- puberty)
    • Description:  Children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks, or they feel inferior.
  67. 5. Identity vs Role Confusion
    • Age: Teens into 20's
    • Description: Teenagers work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and then integrating them to form a single identity, or they become confused about who they are.
  68. 6. Intimacy vs Isolation
    • Age: 20's to 40's
    • Description:  Young adults struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated.
  69. 7. Generativity vs Stagnation
    • Age: 40's to 60's
    • Description: The middle-aged discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
  70. 8. Integrity vs Despair
    • Age: Late 60's and up
    • Description:  When reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.
  71. Identity:
    One's sense of self
  72. Generativity:
    being productive and supporting future generations
  73. Intimacy:
    the ability to form close, loving relationships
  74. Crystallized Intelligence:
    • one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
    • increases with age
  75. Fluid intelligence:
    • one's ability to reason speedily and abstractly
    • decreases during late adulthood
  76. Social clock:
    • the culturally preferred timing of social events
    • ex: marriage, parenthood, retirement
  77. Two aspects that Erikson says dominate adulthood:
    Intimacy and Generativity
  78. Kubler-Ross:
    made the Stages of Dying
  79. Stages of Dying:
    • 1. Denial
    • 2. Anger
    • 3. Bargaining [with God]
    • 4. Depression
    • 5. Acceptance of Death