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What are the 3 types of symbiotic relationship?
- Mutualism: the relationship is +/+
- Commensalism: is +/0
- Parasitism: +/-
What are the procedures of Koch's postulates?
- Isolate microorganisms from dead animals
- Grow microorganisms in pure culture
- Inject microorganisms in healthy animal
- Microorganisms reproduce in animal
- Microorganisms are isolated again
What are the characteristics of charophyceans?
- Homologous cell wall
- Homologous chloroplast
- Phagmoplasts( mitosis & cytokinesis)
- Peroxisome enzyme
- Genetic relationship
- Fresh water
What are the plant's adaptations to terrestrial Life?
- Apical meristems
- Multicellular dependent embryo (to give the offspring a better start)
- Alternative of generation (ex. Gametophyte or sporophyte)
- Walled spores produced in sporangia
- Others: cuticle, stomata, xylem, phloem
- Secondary compounds: developing compounds that is toxic to protection the plant from predators
What characteristics do the water and slime molds have in common with protista?
- Produce flagellated productive cells
- Cell walls made of cellulose
- Amoeba or algae like
What characteristics do the water and slime molds have in common with fungi?
- Produce sporangia
Feeding strategy photoautotrophic
Feeding strategy chemoautotrophic
Feeding strategy photoheterotrophic
Feeding strategy chemheterotrophic
- Organic chemical
- Organic compound
List all characteristics of vascular seedless plants
- Formation of vascular tissue ( xylem, phloem; true leaves, roots, stems)
- Lignin ( support)
- Sporophyte generation dominant
- Sperm with flagella (have to be near water)
What are the two main points of Darwin's book?
- Decent with modification - offspring have variation with gene with parents.
- Natural selection - ( differential reproduction ) the idea that those organisms best adapted to a given environment will be mist likely to survive to reproducive age and have offsprings of their own.
What are the favorable conditions for allopatric speciation?
- Small population (different gene couple spread quickly)
- isolation (immigration and emigration )
- Different environmental conditions (ex grand Canon)
What are the possible out come of a hybrid zone?
- Reinforcement: strengthening of reproductive barrier
- Fusion: weakening of reproductive barrier
- stability: continued production of hybrid individuals.
What are the three types of Gradualism?
- Populational: new traits become established in a population by increasingtheir frequency from a small fraction of the population to the majority.
- Phenotypic: new traits, even those that are strikingly different fromancestral ones are produced in small increments.
- Phyletic: on a geological time scale, there are intermediate formsconnecting the phenotypes of ancestors and descendents.
List out different types of fossil records. Provide example for each type to getfull points.
- Sedimentary rocks: things been covered quickly. Ex: Grand Canyon
- Hard parts: teeth, bone, shell, seeds, spore.
- Minerals: petrified tree.
- Organic material: leaves, insect. Preserve the ecology at that time.
- Casts: outside structure of the organism
- Trace fossils: footprint/ evidence of social behavior, size, and weight.
- Entire organism: organism preserved within amber.
What are the possible outcomes of a hybrid zone?
- Reinforcement •Strengtheining of reproductive barriers
- Fusion •Weakening of reproductive barriers
- Stability •Continued production of hybrid individuals
What are the two major type of macroevolution through many speciationevents?
- Evolutionary Novelties
- Evolution of Genes that control development •Changes in Spatial Pattern •Changes in Rate and Timing
Julian Huxley proposed a theory called Modern Synthesis suggested thatevolution of genes control development, which was also known as the “Evo-devo.” What are the main components in this theory? What “tools” can befound in the genetic tool kit?
- Modern Synthesis:
- I. Gradual evolution can be explained by small genetic changes that producevariation which is acted upon by natural selection
- II. The evolution at higher taxonomic levels and of greater magnitude can beexplained by long periods of time
- Genetic tool kit:
- I.Hox proteins
- II.Pax-6 gene
- III. Cell-type regulators
- IV. Cellular receptors
- VI. Coloration proteins