ch. 11

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jcandyj_80alba
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ch. 11
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2012-09-24 13:55:07
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ch 11 blood
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  1. What is the normal pH range of blood
    7.35-7.45
  2. this means thickness or resistance to flow
    viscosity
  3. is the liquid part of blood and is approximately 91% of water
    plasma
  4. What is the most abundant plasma proteins
    Albumin
  5. is a plasma protein that are antibodies produced by lymphocytes
    globulins
  6. Blood cells are produced from stem cells in what tissue
    hemopoietic tissue
  7. After birth the hempoietic tissue is primarily what found in flat and irregular bones
    red bone marrow
  8. what is another way to measure the amount of RBC that invovles drawing blood into a thin glass tube called a capillary tube and centrifuging the tube to force all the cells to one end
    hematocrit
  9. Red blood cells contain what protein that gives them the ability to carry oxygen
    hemoglobin
  10. what are the precusor cells that are within red bone marrow
    stem cells
  11. the stem cells of the red bone marrow may also be called
    hemocytoblasts
  12. lack of oxygen
    hypoxia
  13. hormone produced by the kidney that stimulates the red bone marrow to increase the rate of RBC production
    erythropoietin
  14. this is the last stage with a nucleus, which then disintegrates
    normoblast
  15. what is another name for Vitamin B12
    extrinsic factor
  16. a chemical that combines with the Vitamin B12 in food to prevent is digestion and promote its absorption in the small intestine and is produced in the parietal cells of the stomach
    intrinsic factor
  17. A deficiency of either viatmin B12 or the intrinsic factor results in
    pernicious anemia
  18. what is the live span of RBC
    120 days
  19. what system removes the damaged cells from the circulation of cells
    tissue macrophage system
  20. The heme is convert to what by macrophages
    bilirubin
  21. first clump of RBC
    agglutination
  22. RBC rupture
    hemolysis
  23. What is a normal WBC count
    5000-10000 per uL
  24. what are the 5 types of WBC
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  25. the granular leukocytes are
    • neutorphils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  26. the agranular leukocytes are
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  27. which leukocytes are capable of the phagocytosis of pathogens
    neutrophils and monocytes
  28. During an infection, neutorphils are produced more rapidly and the immature forms are called
    band cells
  29. phagocytized dead or damaged tissue at the site of any injury, helpin to make tissue repair possible is
    macrophages
  30. is an anticoagulant that helps prevent abnormal clotting within blood vessels
    heparin
  31. part of inflammation process, and it makes capillaries more permeable allowing tissue fluid, protein, and WBC to accumulate in the damaged area
    histamine
  32. what are the two major lymphocytes
    T cells and B cells
  33. this cell helps recognize foreign antigens and may directly destory some foreign  antigens
    T cells
  34. this cell becomes plasma cells that produce antibodies to foreign antigens
    b cells
  35. what cells destroy foreign cells by chemically rupturing their membranes
    natural killer cells (NK cells)
  36. A high WBC count is called
    leukocytosis
  37. A low WBC count is called
    leukopenia
  38. what is the formal name for platelets which are not whole cells but rather framents or pieces of cells
    thrombocytes
  39. large cells which break up into small pieces thatenter circulation
    megakaryocytes
  40. a hormone produced by the liver that increases the rate of platelet production
    thrombopoietin
  41. low platelet count
    thrombocytopenia
  42. prevention of blood loss
    hemostasis
  43. zipper-like glycoproteins that tend to come apart.
    cadherins
  44. when a large vessel such as an artery or vein is severed, the smooth muscle in its wall contracts in response to the damage.
    myogenic response
  45. the clot itself is made of a thread-like protein
    fibrin
  46. Once the clot has formed and bleeding has stopped what occurs
    clot retraction and fibrinolysis
  47. The liver produces a globulin that combines with an inactivates excess thrombin
    antithrombin
  48. clotting in an intact vessel; the clot itself is called
    thrombus
  49. a clot or other tissue transported from elsewhere that lodges in and obstructs avessel is called
    embolism
  50. what is the general function of blood
    • transportation
    • regulation
    • protection
  51. Plasma transports
    • nutrients
    • wastes
    • hormones
    • heat
    • antibodies
    • CO2 as HCO3
  52. Plasma proteins are synthesized by what organ
    liver
  53. what protein is synthesized by liver and provides colloid osmotic pressure that pulls tissue fluid into capillaries to maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure
    albumin
  54. what protein is synthesized bny the liver and are carriers for fats and other substances in the blood
    alpha and bet globulins
  55. these are antibodies produced by lymphocytes
    gamma globulins
  56. what are the 3 formed elements
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • platelets
  57. After birth what is the primary hemopoietic tissue
    red bone marrow
  58. after birth the hemopoietic tissue, red bone marrow contains what type of cell
    stem cells
  59. Lymphocytes mature and divide in to what
    • lymphatic tissue of the spleen
    • lymph nodes
    • thymus
  60. Biconcave discs with no nuclei when mature
    Red Blood cells
  61. RBC carry what type of gas and are bonded to what
    O2 bonded to iron in hemoglobin
  62. where are RBC formed in
    Red Bone Marrow from hemocytoblasts
  63. what stimulates the kidneys to produce the hormone erythopoietin, which increases the rate of RBC produciton in the RBM
    Hypoxia
  64. Immature RBCs
    • normoblasts ( have nuclei)
    • reticulocytes
  65. large numbers in peripheral circulation indicate a need for more RBCs to do what
    carry oxygen
  66. What is the extrinsic factor needed for DNA synthesis (mitosis) in stem cells in the RBM
    Vitamin B12
  67. The intrinsic factor is produced by
    parietal cells of the stomach lining
  68. Larger than RBC and have nuclei when mature
    WBC (leukocyte)
  69. which WBC phagocytize pathogens
    neutrophils and monocytes
  70. monocytes become
    macrophages also phagocytize dead tissue
  71. which WBC detoxify foreign proteins during allergeic reactions and parasitic infections
    eosinophils
  72. which WBC phagoctyize anything labeled with antibodies
    eosinophils
  73. which WBC contain the anticoagulant heparin and histamine, which contributes to inflammation
    basophils
  74. what are the 3 lymphocytes
    • T cells,
    • B cells
    • natural killer cells
  75. which cell recognize foreign antigens and destroy them
    t cells
  76. which cell become plasma cells which produce antibodies to foreign antigens
    b cells
  77. whic cell destroy foreign cell membranes
    natural killer cells
  78. this is formed in the RBM and are fragments of megakaryocytes
    Platelets
  79. which hormone from the liver increases platelet production
    thrombopoietin
  80. what does platelets help maintain
    endothelium of blood vessels
  81. platelets also help prevent
    blood loss

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