Biology Exam 1
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What are the Clinical Conditions
- Sickle Cell Anemia
- Type I Diabetes
- Cystic Fibrosis
- Familial Hypercholesterolemia
- Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Disease (LAD)
What does Sickle cell anemia affect?
Red Blood cells
What is the defect/mutation of sickle cell anemia?
What does type 1 diabetes affect?
What is the defect/mutation for type1 diabetes?
Insulin production is defective
What does cystic fibrosis affect?
What is the defect/mutation for cystic fibrosis?
CF protein and salt transport
What does familial hypercholesterolemia affect
What is the defect/mutation for hypercholesterolemia?
What does leukocyte adhesion deficiency disease affect?
What is the defect/mutation for leukocyte adhesion deficiency disease?
What does cancer affect?
What is the defect/mutation for cancer?
defective/mutated Cell division
What organisms have eukaryotic cells?
What organisms have prokaryotic cells?
How big are eukaryotic cells?
How big are prokaryotic cells?
What is the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells when it comes to a nucleus?
- Eukaryotic cells have a "true nucleus" with a nuclear membrane and DNA in chromosomes
- Prokaryotic Cells have no "true nucleus" just naked DNA held in by the membrane
- ---> no meiosis/mitosis processes either
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells when it comes to organelles?
Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles while prokaryotes do not
Name the organelles in a eukaryotic cell (and brief function)
- Nucleus- holds DNA
- Mitochondria- energy production/storage
- Chloroplasts- energy for plant cells only
- Flagella- movement inside cells
- Lysosomes- digestion
- Golgi apparatus- protein packaging
- Endoplasmic reticulum- synthesis of proteins (rough er) carbohydrates and lipids (smooth er)
- Food vesiclesmembrane- storage food/water
label the cell
What are the benefits of organelles?
Allows the cell to compartmentalize, for example, DNA is only in the nucleus bc it is needed there, or enzymes are only in the lysosome so they only digest bad stuff, not the whole cell.
What is the buildup of life from smallest to largest?
- ---> goes through growth, division and then cell differentiation (specialization) to form...
- organ systems
What are the key molecules of cells? and their functions?
- water-- polarity; division of cells into compartments
- carbohydrates- cell energy
- lipids- membrane structure and function
- proteins- structure&function- relationship to disease
- DNA&RNA- gene structure and function
What does polar mean?
uneven distribution of charge
What is a hydrogen bond?
the attractive force between a [slightly] positive H atom of one molecule, and a [slightly] negative atom (usually O or N) of another molecule
What elements are included in carbohydrates? and why?
- C, H, O
- they are biological fuels that are burned (or oxidized) for energy
What are the 3 activities for which cells use energy?
- Biosynthesis / growth (assembling complex
- molecules from simpler ones)
- Active transport (moving substances across
What are the monomers of carbohydrates?
What is a monosaccharide? What are the 3 monosaccharides?
- Molecule of 1 glucose
- The three monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose
What are disaccharides? What are the disaccharides?
- Disaccharides are made of 2 glucose molecules
- The types of disaccharides are sucrose (fructose+glucose), lactose (glucose+galactose), and maltose (glucose+glucose)
What are polysaccharides? What are some polysaccharide molecules?
- Polysaccharides are many glucose molecules together
- Some polysaccharides include cellulose, starch, and glycogen
Photosynthesis and metabolism equations?
- E (energy) + CO2+ H20-->sugars (starch) + O2
- sugars (starch) + O2-->CO2+ H20 + E
What is used to store glucose?
- for when you fast
Know hypo/hyperglycemia chart
What is a hormone?
Substance (made by our cells) which travels through the blood to reach “target cells” and triggers those cells to some action.
Examples of hormones?
What is the source for insulin?
The pancreas (beta cells)
What are the target cells for insulin?
Most cells (liver, muscle, etc)
What is the function of insulin?
take up of glucose and conversion to glycogen
What is the source of glucagon
Pancreas (alpha cells)
What are the target cells for glucagon?
Most cells (liver, muscle, etc)
What is the function of glucagon?
Convert glycogen back to glucose (6-P)
What is the source of adrenaline?
What are the target cells for adrenaline?
muscle, liver, heart, blood vessels, etc
What is the function of adrenaline
activate flight fright fight response
Which of these are proteins?
insulin and glucagon are also proteins, adrenaline is not
What are the 2 hormones of glucose regulation?
What happens when you feast and have high blood glucose?
the pancreas releases insulin which binds to the outside of the cell and sends a signal for the cell to take up glucose and convert it to glycogen for storage
What happens when you fast and blood glucose is low?
Glucagon is released from the pancreas and attaches to the cell and signals for conversion of glycogen back to glucose and release back into the blood
What are the types of lipids?
- Sterols (Cholesterol Steroids Estrogen Progesteron Testosterone)
- Fats ( Saturated & unsaturated fatty acids)
- Phospholipids (lipids with “phosphate”)
What do lipids do?
- Provide energy for animals
- ---->1 gram lipid -->about 3,000 calories energy
- ---->1 gram carbohydrate -->about 1,000 calories energy
- Principal component of membranes
What is a fatty acid?
a type of fat, a lipid witha long chain hydrocarbon with “COOH” at one end
What is a glycerol?
not a lipid, but the “backbone” of fats known as triglycerides
What is a tryglyceride?
a type of fat, a lipid with three fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone
What is a phospholipid?
- a lipid containing phosphate
- makes up most cell membranes
What is the structure of a phospholipid?
Two fatty acids attached to a glycerol with some other molecule (r group) attatched
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
- Saturated: solid at room temperature, as many hydrogens as possible
- Unsaturated: liquid at room temp, double bonds
What are the 2 other structures phospholipids can form?
- Liposomes- used for drug delivery by binding to a cell and opening and releasing drug to fight cancer, antifungal infections, post surgery pains, etc.
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