FS Ethics Exam 1

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FS Ethics Exam 1
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2012-09-24 14:03:15
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FS Ethics Exam 1
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  1. Citizenship
    the character of an individual viewed as a member of society

    behavior in terms of the duties, obligations and functions of a citizen

    personal standards
  2. Culture
    abstract patterns of nad for living and dying, which are learned directly or indirectly

    the rules, ideas, and beliefs that are shared by members of society

    personal standards
  3. Ethics
    the branch of philosphy concerned with the intent, means, and consequences of moral behavior

    the study of moral judgements and right and wrong conduct

    the focus is on those situations in which there is a choice of behavior involving human values
  4. Ethos
    referring to a peasents fundamental orientation toward life

    "inner character"

    greek
  5. Golden Rule
    a rule of ethical conduct found in some form in most major religions

    "do unto others as you would have them do unto you"
  6. Honesty
    having a sense of honor

    upright and fair dealing

    professional standards
  7. Integrity
    fidelity to moral principles

    professional standards
  8. Laws
    man-made rules and regulations that govern society

    concerned with acts AND conduct

    concerned with the interest of society

    "externally" imposed
  9. Moral
    synonymous with ethical

    the customs, values, and standards of practice of a group, age, or theory intended to be timeless
  10. Motives
    something, as a reason or desire, acting as a spur to action
  11. Non-theistic
    a philosphy that does not focus on the worship of a god or gods
  12. Philosophy
    the set of values, ideas, and opinions of an individual group
  13. Religion
    • a culturally entrenched pattern of behavior made up of:
    •        sacred beliefs
    •        emotional feelings accompanying those beliefs
    •        overt conduct presumably implementing the beliefs and
    •               feelings
  14. Secular
    being separate from religion

    non-religious

    non-theistic
  15. Theism
    a philosophy that focuses on belief in a god of gods
  16. Values
    beliefs that are held in high esteem
  17. A stage of moral development in which an individual considers universal moral principles that supercede the authority of a group.
    post-conventional
  18. A stage of moral development in which moral reasoning is based on reward and punishment from those in authority.
    pre-conventional
  19. A stage of moral development in which the expectations of the social group are supported and maintained.
    conventional
  20. A stage of moral development in which the individual is characterized as not understanding the rules or feeling a sense of obligation to them.
    Stage 1: punishment orientation

    pre-conventional
  21. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory are actions evaluated in terms of possible punishment?
    Stage 1: punishment orientation

    pre-conventional
  22. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory does an individual always defer to what provides for the “greater good”?
    stage 5: social-contract orientation

    post-conventional
  23. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory does an individual begin to internalize parental/societal values?
    stage 3: good boy/good girl orientation

    conventional
  24. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory does an individual consider the laws and rules of society along with their own self-chosen standards of justice and respect for human dignity?
    stage 6: morality of individual principles

    post-conventional
  25. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory does an individual feel the need to do one’s “duty”?
    stage 4: authority orientation

    conventional
  26. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory does an individual think in terms of rights of others, the general welfare of the community, and a duty to conform to the laws and standards established by the will of the majority?
    stage 5: social-contract orientation

    post-conventional
  27. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory is an individual’s behavior directed by self-chosen ethical principles that tend to be general, comprehensive or universal?
    stage 6: morality of individual principles
  28. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory is good behavior considered that which pleases others in the immediate group?
    stage 3: good boy/good girl orientation

    conventional
  29. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory is high value placed on justice, dignity and equality?
    stage 6: morality of individual principles
  30. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory is the concern about others only in regards to what benefits an individual can gain?
    stage 2: pleasure-seeking orientation

    pre-conventional
  31. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory is the emphasis on being nice?
    stage 3: goodboy/good girl orientation

    conventional
  32. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory is the emphasis on upholding law, order, and authority?
    stage 4: authority orientation

    conventional
  33. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory is there flexibility in the interpretation and application of rules?
    stage 5: social-contract orientation

    post-conventional
  34. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory is there no internalization of values?
    stage 2: pleasure-seeking orientation

    pre-conventional
  35. In what stage of Kohlberg’s theory will an individual defer to the power of others and obey rules to avoid trouble?
    stage 1: punishment orientation

    pre-conventional
  36. Know the four personal standards that are used to comprise individual ethics.
    culture

    theistic or non-theistic values

    citizenship

    family relationships
  37. Know the four professional standards that are used to comprise individual ethics.
    service to community

    welfare of the profession

    honesty

    integrity
  38. Know the important points of Carol Gilligan’s theory on moral development in women?
    base moral judgements on considerations of caring

    look for solutions that serve to maintain relationships

    seek caring solutions that consider the needs of both sides
  39. Know the names of each stage of Kohlberg’s theory and what number stage each is.
    • stage 1: punishment orientation
    • stage 2: pleasure-seeking orientation
    • stage 3: good boy/good girl orientation
    • stage 4: authority orientation
    • stage 5: social-contract orientation
    • stage 6: morality of individual principles
  40. Know what two stages define each level of Kohlberg’s theory. 
    Punishment orientation and Pleasure-seeking orientation define the pre-conventional level.

    Good boy/Good girl orientation and Authority orientation define the conventional level

    Social-contract orientation and Morality of Individual Principles define post-conventional level
  41. Law or Ethics – which applies to the following statement?:  Concerned with acts and conduct.
    law
  42. Law or Ethics – which applies to the following statement?:  Concerned with the interest of society.
    law
  43. Law or Ethics – which applies to the following statement?:  Concerned with the values relation to human conduct.
    ethics
  44. Law or Ethics – which applies to the following statement?:  Concerned with the motives for and attitudes toward conduct.
    ethics
  45. Law or Ethics – which applies to the following statement?:  Concerned with the interest of society AND of the individual.
    ethics
  46. Law or Ethics – which applies to the following statement?:  Externally imposed.
    law
  47. Law or Ethics – which applies to the following statement?:  Internally imposed.
    ethics
  48. Law or Ethics – which applies to the following statement?:  Man-made rules and regulations to govern society.
    law
  49. The punishment orientation stage of Kohlberg’s theory was once known as what?
    premoral level
  50. The statement “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you” is known as what?
    the golden rule
  51. The study of moral judgments and right and wrong conduct is what?
    ethics
  52. What are prescriptions for moral behavior based on?
    the golden rule
  53. What are the two shared goals of laws and ethics?
    the regulation of behavior

    the protection of society
  54. What did Aristotle believe separated humans from other creatures?
    rationality
  55. What is an imperfect instrument for a guide to ethical behavior?
    law
  56. What is considered to be the “ethical ideal”?
    ethics of "moderation"
  57. What is the development of secular ethics based on?
    a scientific understanding of the world
  58. What stage of Kohlberg’s theory is sometimes considered a theoretical stage?
    stage 6: morality of individual principles

    post-conventional
  59. What stage of Kohlberg’s theory was once known as the “premoral” level?
    stage 1: punishment orientation

    pre-conventional level
  60. What three things make up the pattern of behavior seen in religion?
    sacred beliefs

    emotional feelings accompnying the beliefs

    overt conduct presumbly implementing the beliefs and feelings
  61. What type of ethics did Aristotle teach?
    ethics of "moderation"
  62. When an individual seeks to satisfy their own needs by behaving in a manner that will gain rewards and the return of favors, they are in what stage of Kohlberg’s theory?
    stage 2: pleasure-seeking orientation

    pre-conventional
  63. Where is most ethics rooted?
    religion
  64. Who was the most influential philosopher shaping secular ethics?
    Aristotle

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