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2010-05-02 18:58:43

Glossary of Technical and subtechnical terminology
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  1. accounting
    the skill or activity of keeping records of the money a person or Organisation earns and spends
  2. administration
    the arrangements and tasks needed to control the Operation of a plan or organisation
  3. aerospace
    • space comprising the earth's atmosphere and the space beyond;
    • a science that deals with aerospace
  4. alloy
    a substance having metal properties and being composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal.
  5. antipollution
    • intended to counteract or eliminate environmental: pollution antipollution filters;
    • antipollution laws.
  6. board of directors
    the group of directors who are responsible for controlling and organising a company or organisation
  7. cam
    a rotating disk shaped to convert circular motion into linear
  8. capital goods
    real products that are used in the production of other products but are not incorporated into the new product, e.g. machines and tools
  9. capital Investment
    money which is spent on buildings and equipment to increase the effectiveness of a business
  10. Civil War (=the American Civil War)
    a four-year war (1861-65) between the federal government of the United States and 11 Southern states that asserted their right to secede from the Union.
  11. consumer
    one that consumes, especially one that acquires goods or services for direct use or ownership rather than for resale or use in production and manufacturing
  12. consumer goods
    goods intended for direct use or consumption
  13. cotton gin
    a machine that separates the seeds, seed hulls, and other small objects from the fibers of cotton.
  14. customer
    a person who buys goods or a Service
  15. demand
    demand is the want or need or desire for a product that is backed by an ability to pay. Demand is measured over a given time period. It is determined by a number of factors including income, tastes and the price of complementary and substitute goods.
  16. dividends, dividend
    a part of the profit of a Company that is paid to the people who own shares in it
  17. electric motor
    any device that converts electromagnetic force to motion, or vice-versa
  18. diversification
    the act of introducing variety (especially in investments or in the variety of goods and Services offered)
  19. electronics (noun)
    (used with a sing. verb) The science and technology of electronic phenomena.
  20. engineering
    • the application of science and mathematics by which the properties of matter and the sources of energy in nature are made useful to people;
    • the design and manufacture of complex products, e.g. Software engineering
  21. enterprise
    • 1 an Organisation, especially a business (in economic theory);
    • 2 a term used to refer to entrepreneurial skill.
  22. ferrous materials
    materials containins iron
  23. fixed capital
    any kind of real or physical capital t hat is not used up in the production and is also not easily moved into the production of a new product
  24. flyball governor
    designed by James Watt in 1788 as a feedback mechanism for the steam engine. The shaft of a flyball governor is spun by a steam engine. As it spins, centrifugal force throws weights outward, moving linkages that slow the machine down. As the shaft slows down, the weights fall, engaging a throttle that speeds the engine up. The flyball governor forces the engine to operate at a constant and consistent speed.
  25. free enterprise
    an economic System in which private businesses compete with each other to seil goods and Services in order to make a profit, and in which government control is limited to protecting the public and running the economy
  26. human resources
    the department of an Organisation that deals with finding new employees, keeping records about all the organisation's employees, and helping them with any Problems
  27. hydrocarbons. hydrocarbon
    a chemical combination of hydrogen and carbon, such as in oil
  28. Industrial Revolution
    Although there is some discussion about its timing, the industrial revolution is generally accepted as occurring in Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The revolution was in technology - new techniques involving new machinery and new processes - but was accompanied by social and political changes. These changes, beginning in Britain, took place over a long period of time but their effects transformed society.
  29. interchangeable production
    production using identical components that can substitute one for another, particularly important in manufacturing. Interchangeable parts represents a tremendous advance in production Systems. Prior to interchangeable parts. each element of a device had to be time consumingly h and crafted or custom made. Eli Whitney developed a system of interchangeable parts for mass production in the 1800s.
  30. invention
    the design or creation of something which has never been made before
  31. kinematics
    the branch of mechanics concerned with the motions of objects without being concerned with the forces that cause the motion
  32. lathe
    a mach ine for changing the shape of a piece of wood, metal. etc. which works by turning the material while a sharp tool is pressed against it
  33. labor (labour UK)
    work; exertion
  34. loans. loan
    a sum of money which is borrowed from a bank. and has to be paid back, usually together with an additional amount of money as a charge for borrowing
  35. machine tool
    powered machine for cutting or shaping or finishing metals or other materials
  36. management
    • the act of managing something;
    • the control and Organisation of something, the person or persons who control or direct a business
  37. to manufacture
    to produce goods in large numbers, usually in a factory using machines
  38. manufacturing
    • The act, craft, or process of manufacturing products, especially on a large scale;
    • an industry in which mechanical power and machinery are employed;
    • the use of machines, tools and labor to make things for use or sale.
  39. marketing
    • a job that involves encouraging people to buy a product or service;
    • the commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producer to consumer
  40. milling machine
    machine tool in which metal that is secured to a carriage is fed against rotating cutters that shape it
  41. nonferrous materials
    materials that do not contain iron
  42. ores, ore
    rock or soil from which metal can be obtained
  43. organization, organisation (UK)
    a group of people who work together in a structured way for a shared purpose
  44. ownership
    • when you own something;
    • the person, people or Institution who legally possess an item
  45. payoff
    the result of a set of actions
  46. plant
    • a building or group of buildings for the manufacture of a product;
    • a factory;
    • the equipment, including machinery, tools, Instruments, and fixtures and the buildings containing them, necessary for an industrial or manufacturing operation.
  47. plowback
    spending money that a business had earned on improving that business; reinvestment of (earnings or profits) in one's business. This term transfers the farming practice of turning the soil from top to bottom to financial enterprises.
  48. Power
    • the energy or motive force by which a physical System or machine is operated: turbines turne d by steam power;
    • a wind turbine driven by wind power: electrical or mechanical energy, especially as used to assist or replace human energy;
    • electricity supplied to a home, building, or community: a storm that cut off power to the whole region.
  49. Power belts, power belt
    a looped, flexible connection used for power transmission
  50. power transformation
    any process of transforming one form of energy to another. Energy of fossil fuels, solar radiation, or nuclear fuels can be converted into other energy forms such as electrical, propulsive, or heating that are more useful to us. Often, machines are used to transform energy. The efficiency of a machine characterizes how well (how efficiently) it can produce a useful output (such as work for example) through such a conversion.
  51. profit
    money which is earned in trade or business, especially after paying the costs of producing and selling goods and services
  52. resources
    • useful or valuable possessions or qualities of a country, organization, or person;
    • inputs used in the production of goods and Services
  53. revenues, revenue
    the income that a Company receives regularly
  54. robotics
    area of engineering concerned with the design and manufacture of robots
  55. shafts, shaft
    a rod which forms part of a machine such as an engine, and which turns in order to pass power on to the machine
  56. shareholders, shareholder
    a person who owns some of the equal parts into which the ownership of a company is divided
  57. steam engine
    An engine that converts the heat energy of pressurized steam into mechanical energy, especially one in which steam drives a piston in a closed cylinder
  58. technique
    a way of doing an activity which needs skill
  59. technology
    • engineering;
    • the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area, e.g. medical technology
  60. trade-off
    a compromise involving a kind of exchange where one accepts a less than perfect solution by sacrificing one feature etc. to obtain more of another feature; a trade-off usually refers to losing one quality or aspect of something in return for gaining another quality or aspect.
  61. waterwheel
    • a wheel with buckets attached to its rim;
    • raises water from a stream or pond
  62. working capital
    the money belonging to a company which is immediately available for business use, rather than money it has in Investments or property