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- - Hellenistic Astronomer (310-230 BC)
- Discovered that the sun and stars are fixed in
- place, and it is the earth that rotates on own axis around sun (heliocentric mondel rejected by Greeks, who stuck to geocentric model)
- Eyptian pharaohattempted religious reform, replacing sun god with god of the sun disk, Aten
- closed temples and lowered priestly power dedicated to Amon-Re.
- changed his name to Akhenaten and capital to Akhtaten to promote this religious transformation
- Rejection of foreign affairs led to the loss of Syria and Canaan.
- Egyptians couldn't ignore traditions.
Battle of Pharsalus:
- - 48 BCE
- between Caesar’s forces and the Senate led by Pompey and his army.
- Caesar’s veterans carried the day against Pompey’s forces. It was a massacre of several thousand Roman troops.
- Although Caesar didn't want to kill them, he looked at hte bodies and said, "Well, they would have it thus."
- Pompey defeated--> fled to Egypt--> killed
- very first site of civilization
- one of the first civilizations in the world and part of the world’s first civilization
- large scale sculpture in the round and relief carving appeared for first time
- largest settlement in southern Mesopotamia
- (ancient Iraq)
- The mound of Warka contains the ruins of Uruk
- Located in Mesopotamia, it was characterized by mudbrick buildings, pictographs, etc.
- The Epic of Gilgamesh tells of the story of the legendary king of Uruk, Gilgamesh
- (521-486 BCE)
- Persian king after Cambysus
- tried to strengthen the Persian empire
- codified Egyptian law
- built a canal linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea.
- militaristic campaign, creating new Persian provinces, (dividing them into twenty satrapies governed by satrap)
- When the Ionians revolted with the help of
- Athens, Darius, after resestablishing control of them, attacked the Greek mainland, leading to the Battle of Marathon, where he was brutally defeated.
- Under Darius, Persia was the largest empire.
- He also created a tribute calculation system in which each satrap is responsible for certain duties and
- owed tribute.
- Major satrapies= “miniature kings”,
- Smaller satrapies = Persian nobles.
- Hereditary position provided checks on power--> “king’s eye” was employed to inspect
- He also created roads as an efficient system of communication (ex: Royal Road).
- His policies during rule, such as hoarding gold and
- silver and overtaxation, weakened the empire.
- He was a palace builder
Cato the Elder
- (234-149 BCE)
- He was a Roman politician (praetor, consul, and
- censor) who wrote On Agriculture, which
- was a technical handbook that resembled those of the Hellenistic era. He blamed
- Greek culture for destroying Rome and referred to those who enjoyed Greek
- aspects as “Greeklings.” Furthermore, he tried to organize a decree that would
- force all Greek philosophers out. Although he resented Greeks, he sent his son
- to study in Athens because he was aware of the growing importance of Greek in
- politics, such as rhetoric.
Treaty of the Ebro River
- (226 BCE)
- enacted between Rome and Carthage after the first Punic War.
- established the Ebro River as the boundary between the two countries.
- Carthage was bound to the land south of the Ebro River, while Rome occupied the lands north of the Ebro River. Neither empire was allowed to interfere in the other's designated sphere.
- Still, Rome’s involvement in Saguntum, which is on Carthage’s land, contributed to the Second Punic War.
Epic of Gilgamesh
- Tells the story of the king of Uruk, Gilgamesh.
- Gilgamesh was a strong, wise, and perfect ruler, who
- abused his power.
- As a result, the people of Uruk prayed to the gods to ask for someone to keep Gilgamesh busy--> hairy beast to fight him, Enkidu.
- Gilgamesh initially tries to get him seduced (futile effort)
- They engage in a fierce struggle with no victor. Eventually, they become friends and carry out very good deeds. When Ishtar is rejected by Gilgamesh
- after trying to seduce him, she asks her father, Anu, to send the Bull of Heaven to kill them both. Although he sends a bull, the two men kill the bull, angering the Gods and ordering that one of them be sacrificed. Enlil picks Enkidu, who falls ill and dies. Gilgamesh is deeply distraught by this and searches for immortality. Along the way, he comes across Utnapishtim, who attained
- immortality after the Gods initiated a Great Flood and felt ashamed. He tells him to go to the bottom of a river and find a plant that gives the power to grow younger. Although he finds it, a snake snatches it, causing him to remain mortal. This is a lesson that immortality is for the gods only.
- Ancient Greek Historian that was Alexander the Great’s ancient biographerWrote The Campaigns of Alexander, relaying Alexander’s numerous battes, including the Battle of Hydapses.
- ----> Alexander the Great was so amazed of Porus’ courage that he allowed him sovereignty over his subjects
- Wrote about Alex’s military skills.
- She was one of the greatest lyrical poets in
- Greek’s Archaic Age. Sappho wrote love songs to her female students of music
- and poetry although married. She created the idea that a person can have both
- heterosexual and homosexual feelings existing together. Because she lived on
- the island of Lesbos, the term lesbian came
- from this. She also wrote about heterosexual love.
Instruction of Ptah Hotep
- Ancient Egpytian work by a high-ranking
- beurocrat (vizier) of Egypt, Ptah Hotep; in this book, he sets down the rules
- of behavior that all wise men should convey to their sons. For example, he
- mentions behaviors such as proper etiquette and sucking up to the boss to get
- ahead in life. He also mentions how the son should act in a women’s presence,
- beware approaching women
On the Sacred Disease
- This was a primary source written by Hippocrates
- discussing a disease that people regard as sacred, but it is only epilepsy. In
- this, he argues that it is no spiritual cause, such as from the gods. He
- mentions that the people say it is superstition to protect themselves. For
- example, if the person dies, they said it had to be done. If the person is
- cured, they take the credit themselves. Essentially, Hippocrates relates it to
- the brain and its powerful functioning and controlling of everything. He viewed
- disease as physical ailments rooted in the natural world.
- (484-425 BCE)
- He was known as the father of history. He was a
- Greek who wrote The Persian Wars, where
- he highlights the conflict between the Persians and the Greeks. He traveled
- widely for his information and was dependent on sources from oral history. He had a critical attitude towards the
- materials he used.
- He discovered that the earth was circular, as
- well as discovered the circumference at
- approximately 24, 675 miles of the world through comparing the noon shadow at
- midsummer between Syene and Alexandria. Assuming the sun’s distance and
- parallel rays, he gave the length because he knew the distance between Syene
- and Alexandria.
Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
- This was the oldest known medical papyrus that
- consists of cases beginning from the head down through the body, rather than
- recipes for curing. The treatment is rational and surgical, such as his
- treatment of the stroke in Case #8, which he examines as an internal injury
- with no visible trauma. In it, he classifies each case as favorable, uncertain,
- or unfavorable, meaning that it can either be treated or untreated. It is very
- advanced in tha tit describes brain injuries, cranial specifics, etc. It of
- Egypt. It is divided into the examination and the diagnosis. He denies the
- power of divinity and relies on theory.
Poem of a Righteous Sufferer
- This is a poetic monologue, opening and ending
- with hymns, that tells of a noble gentleman, who once important and prosperous,
- was driven to disgrace and disease by the god Marduk. It is Mesopotamian
- literature that is similar to Job. The man loses his farm, everything falls to
- pieces, and he used to be a high-ranking official.
Battle of Cannae
- (216 BCE)
- This battle took place between the Romans and
- Carthaginians in the second Punic War. Led by Hannibal, the Carthaginians were
- experiencing great success in defeating the Romans. Prior to this, however,
- they tried to get the Roman allies to revolt against Rome with no success. When
- the Romans decided to attack Carthage head-on, it was an extremely devastating
- defeat for the Romans, who lost about 40,000 soldiers. This caused the southern
- Italian cities to revolt and switch sides.
- Hannibal: light infantry at center; cavalry and
- veteran infantry on wings
- Center moved forward; left charged forward; right rode behind Roman
- army and assaulted cavalry of Rome from the rear; center retreats while others
- hold their position; the infantry on wings attack the surrounded army,
- compressing them; Hamstrings were cut
Battle of Chaeronea
- (338 BC)
- Caused by Demosthenes of Athens. Due to his dislike of Philip II, Demosthenes wrote a series of
- orations, Philipics, which portrayed
- Philip of Macedonia as ruthless, barbaric, treacherous, etc.
- He spurred Athens to take action against them; and, in 338 BC they attacked Macedonia--> Macedonians crush the Greek allies, giving Philip control over the Greek peninsula.
- Thebes was punished harshly, while Athens was treated leniently due to previous and hopeful future
- cooperation with Macedonia. It also led to the formation of the Corinthian League, in which the Greek states united and promised not to go to war.
- general--> consul in 88 BCE.
- After gaining fame in the Italian War, he was given command of the war against Mithridiates. However, Return of Marius led to his command being taken away and given to Marius
- Seeing this as unfair, Sulla marched on Rome and seized
- command, causing Marius to, at first, flee, but later join forces with Cinna and get Sulla outlawed, killing his followers
- Upon Marius’ death, however, Cinna lost power due to
- his reliance on Sulla’s army.
- Sulla returned after defeating Mithridiates, took
- control of Rome, and through several reforms, attempted to get the Republic back to its original form as dictator. First, he conducted a reign of terror to wipe out all opposers of him.
- Afterward, he decreased the power of the popular assemblies and the tribunes of the plebs and restored senators to jury courts, undoing Gracchan reforms, adn adding equestrians to the Senate.
- He retired, thinking he restored the old Rome--> power vacuum.
- (970-930 BCE)
- successor to David of Israel. As king, Israel saw its height.
- a wise leader who expanded military and political establishments, as well as extended trade and commenced building projects, such as the Temple of Jerusalem, which housed the Ark of the Covenant.
- Death-->division among the tribes took place.